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[ supply ] 2007-12-29 Chu chou city exudes the peaceful instrument limited company [... the 1, in the bedroom window installment double-decked window blind, and uses the sincerer quality of material thicker dense console model window blind, when sleep closes the window, draws in the double-deckedthick window blind, may effectively reduce the noise, adsorbs the partial noises; 2nd, inbedroom furniture quantity not suitable too few, is best can use the lignin furniture, also may adsorb the partial noises; 3rd, in the bedroom may consider... forms the zeolite the sedimetary rock by mineral and so on aluminum selenate is composed, based on the ionic exchange principle, the zeolite has the intense adsorption to the positive ion. This is zeolite chemistry filters the principle. The zeolite may adsorb in the water organic and the inorganic member, what is common is the methyl alcohol, the ammonia and so on a smaller member, these material majorities are the protein separator and the activated charcoal can process scope... Hundred home pages | register Hundred hundred branches > glance over the entry The edition entry publishes the commentary history edition printing to increase to searches for Tibet Small tips " What is the related entry? Related entry " " Bacterium " Fungus " Puts " Sets up the gram inferior body " Disease germ " " " Virus [ Biology noun ] Is a kind of individual is small, the non- complete cell structure, contains the sole nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), must in the living cell parasitic and the duplication non- cell micro biology . Originally refers to the toxin which one kind of animal originates. "virus" an etymology to Latin. The virus can multiply, the heredity and the evolution, thus has the life most basic characteristic. Its main characteristic is: (1) Includes the sole kind of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) the gene group and the protein outer covering, does not have the cell structure; (2) Same now and then later releases its nucleic acid in the infection cell, then by nucleic acid duplication way multiplication, but is not by the binary fission way multiplication; (3) In strict cell . Because virus's structure and component simple, some virus also are easy to raise and the quota, therefore after the 20th century 40's, the virus throughout is the molecular biology research important material. In the practice aspect, virus's research to prevented and controlled human, the plant and animal's disease has made the important contribution. If the viral vaccine development, takes the pesticide using the insect virus and so on. In 1982 was complete the viral division the material which but could classify is 7 big groups: (Double strand) ds DNA, has the package membrane; (Double strand) ds DNA, does not have a package of membrane; (Single chain) ss DNA, does not have a package of membrane; (Double strand) ds RNA, has the package membrane; (Double strand) ds RNA, does not have a package of membrane; (Single chain) ss RNA, has the package membrane; (Single chain) ss RNA, does not have a package of membrane. "virus" an etymology to Latin , originally refers to the toxin which one kind of animal originates . The virus can multiply, the heredity and the evolution, thus has the life most basic characteristic, but until now does not have the recognition to it the definition. At first uses for to distinguish viral the character, like the individual is small, generally cannot see under the light microscope, the passable bacterium has not been able through the filter, cannot grow on the artificial culture medium , have and so on pathogenically, now as before has the practical significance. But from essentially differentiates viral and other living thing characteristics is: (1) Includes the sole kind of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) the gene group and the protein outer covering, does not have the cell structure; (2) Same now and then later releases its nucleic acid in the infection cell, then by nucleic acid duplication way multiplication, but is not by the binary fission way multiplication; (3) In strict cell . The virus lacks the independent metabolism ability, only can in the live host cell, duplicate its nucleic acid and the synthesis using the cell biosynthesis machine by its nucleic acid encoded protein, the final attire matches the integrity, has the infectious viral unit, namely viral grain. The viral grain is the virus from the cell to the cell or from the host to the host dissemination main form. At present, a viral word implication may be: Refers to these in the chemical composition and the multiplication way is the alone characteristic, only can make the copy in the host cell the microorganism or the hereditary unit. Its characteristic is: Only includes one kind of type the nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) takes the genetic information the carrier; Does not include the function ribose body or other cell organs; The RNA virus, the completely genetic information all codes on RNA, this kind of situation in the biology is unique; The volume is much smaller than the bacterium, only includes the minority several kind of enzymes class; Cannot multiply in the lifeless culture medium, must rely on the host cell the metabolism system to duplicate own nucleic acid, the synthetic protein and assembles the integrity the viral pellet, or called the virus the body (integrity viral pellet is refers to mature viral individual). Virulent archery target duality; First, viral life form duality 1st, the viral existence dual virus's vital activity is very special, has absolutely to the cell depends on for existence the nature. Its existence form has two: One is the extracellular form, one is in the cell the form. When exists to the extracellular environment, then does not reveal the duplication activeness, but maintenance infection activeness, is the viral body or the viral pellet form. Enters the cell model of domestic virtue disintegration to release the nucleic acid member (DNA or RNA), borrows in the cell the environment condition to make the copy by the unique vital activity system, is for the nucleic acid member form. 2nd, virus's crystallinity and the amorphic substance virus may depute is a crystal. We knew the crystal is a chemistry concept, is the very many inorganic compounds existence one kind of form, we may think certain virus have chemistry crystal and the vital activity two kind of forms. 3rd, the pellet form and the gene form virus exists by the pellet form outside the cell, this time, only has infectiousness. Once the infection cell virus disintegration releases the nucleic acid gene group, then can make the copy and the multiplication, and produces the new filial generation virus. Some viral gene group conformity to the cell gene group, multiply along with the cell reproduction, this time the virus namely multiplies by the gene form, but is not multiplies by the pellet form, this is one way which the viral ambush infects. Second, viral structure and function duality 1st, standard virus and flaw virus in virus's multiplication process, because its gene group because some kind of micro environmental factor influence or copies the process the mistake to have the sudden change, so that has the assembly not entire virus pellet production, is called the flaw virus, produces the flaw virus originally to kiss a generation of virus, then is called the standard virus, the flaw virus pellet has the disturbance standard sickness reproduction the function. 2nd, the vacation virus and the real viral one kind of cell has the situation which two kind of virus simultaneously infects, in the multiplication process, one kind of virus may put on itself outer covering, this is the real virus, is this kind of virus should have "the appearance"; If one kind of virus's nucleic acid by another viral encoded outer covering, then is called the vacation virus, this time one kind of virus's original nature, is covered by another kind of virus's nature. When 3rd, hybrid virus and purebred viral two kind of virus mixes infection, besides appears the vacation virus, but also has the possibility to appear the viral nucleic acid reorganization the situation, namely in one kind of viral pellet, may include two kind of viral the genetic material, this may be called the hybrid virus, in the price after discount virology a quite common phenomenon. Third, viral disease Neo-Confucianism duality 1st, virus's pathogenicity and the non- pathogenicity about the pathogenicity and the non- pathogenic question, are, in the molecular level, the cell level and the organism level which relative says with the host cell, possibly has the different meaning. Has the cell pathological change function in the cell level, but in the organism level possibly certainly did not demonstrate the clinical symptom, this may be called the Asian clinical infection or not reveal the infection. 2nd, the viral infection acute and the chronic viral infection is the result of the clinical symptom has, the slow division anxiously, some virus generally only display the acute infection but very little to display the chronic infection; Some then already has the acute process, also has the chronic process. At present to virus's concept may be: The virus is in the metabolism does not have activeness, has infectiousness, but not necessarily has the pathogenic money, they are smaller than the cell, but is bigger than the majority macro-molecule, they reproduce without exception in the life cell, they include protein or the lipoprotein outer covering and one kind of nucleic acid, D N A or R N A, even only includes the nucleic acid but in to have the protein, or only has the protein not to have the nucleic acid, they took the macro-molecule as if too is complex, takes the organism their physiology and the duplication way differ in thousands of ways. Lwoff in "virus's concept" in an article emphasized viral when particularity pointed out, "the virus should be a virus, because they are the virus". Virus's shape (1) spherical virus; (2) rod-shaped virus; (3) brick shape virus; (4) has Bao Mo the spherical virus; (5) has the spherical forehead the virus; (6) seals to containing in vivo the insect virus. Virus's size The bigger viral diameter is 300 - 450 nanometer, the smaller viral diameter is only 18 - 22 nanometer Virus's composit anonymous ion The virus mainly is composed by the nucleic acid and the protein outer covering. Virus's copy process is called the duplication cycle. It approximately may divide into the continual five stages: The adsorption, the invasion, peels off the shell, the viral macro-molecule synthesis, virus's assembly and the release Virus's classification The international viral classification committee (I C N V) the seventh report (1,999), will possess the known virus to divide into D N A viral - single laid D N according to the nucleic acid type the A virus, D N A viral - D N the A virus, D N A and R N the A reverse records the virus, R N A viral - R N the A virus, R N A viral - Shan Lian, single laid R N the A virus, exposed R N the A virus and a kind of virus and so on eight will be big . In addition, but also additionally builds an Asian virus factor kind. This report approval viral approximately 4,000 kinds, are equipped with three viral item, 64 viral branches, 9 viral subfamilies, 233 virus are, 29 virus are for the independent virus are. The Asian virus factor , not and is. Including satellite virus and prion (infectious protein pellet or virus ). Some attributes not very explicit are the name to establish provisionally the virus is. The virus is widespread in the nature distribution, may infect the bacterium , the fungus , the plant , the animal and the person , often causes the host to arise. But in many situations, the virus also may but not cause the obvious disease with the host coexistence. Brief history Before discovery virus, the people already start not on own initiative to use the virus to serve for the humanity. China around 16th century, uses the smallpox patient center the size to vaccinate for the healthy person causes it to obtain the immunity. Almost at the same time, Holland's planters with marry the connection to cause the tulip infection virus to bloom the beautiful garrulous color flowers; In 1796 E. has invented ; In 1885 L. Louise originated the rabies vaccine. In 1892 . . Ivanov Si Ji discovered the trouble tobacco mosaic the leaf tobacco juice after the detention bacterium filter, still retained its infectiousness; In 1898 M. W. did obeisance Ye Linke to discover once more this fact, and pointed out this sickness was a kind causes with the bacterium different pathogen. This is knows viral the beginning. Later one after another discovered many human, the plant and animal's diseases are cause by the virus. In 1898 F. A. J. forced with P. Fu Luo Shi has discovered cow's foot-and-mouth disease virus; In 1915 F. W. especially and in 1917 the F. Egypt thunder you had separately discovered the bacterium virus is a bacteriophage . Starts from the 30's to explore viral the physics and chemistry nature, M. Schlesinger has deputed the bacteriophage and pointed out it was constitutes by the protein and DNA; In 1935 W. M. Stanley has obtained the tobacco mosaic virus's crystallization ; In 1936 saw for the first time under the electron microscope this virus is one kind of rod-shaped pellet. Later many virus one after another are deputed, has conducted the research to their shape structure and the chemical composition, has provided the basis for the viral classification. Because virus's structure and component simple, some virus also are easy to raise and the quota, therefore since the 20th century 40's, the virus throughout has been the molecular biology research important material. At the end of 30's, by M. cloth Lu Kewei a representative's school of scholar starts with the backwoods coli T even number bacteriophage to study its duplication and the heredity mechanism, has laid the molecular genetics foundation. The 70's, the research gradually change the animal virus with emphasis. In the molecular biology development important progress, like DNA and RNA are the genetic material proof, three union body passwords theory formation, nucleic acid duplication mechanism exposition, inherits the information flow center principle proposing, the reverse records the enzyme , gene overlapping discontinously with and so on the discovery, down to genetic engineering starting with the theory development, nearly does not have one does not concern with the virus. Some protein and a nucleic acid level of structure analysis, also frequently is first completes take the virus as the material research. In turn, the molecular biology research promoted to the viral structure, the duplication and the heredity understanding, causes the virology to develop an independent branch discipline. In the practice aspect, virus's research to prevented and controlled human, the plant and animal's viral disease has made the important contribution. The viral vaccine development, for controlled the human disease (for example smallpox, yellow fever, polio , measles and so on) and the poultry disease (for example , pig acute communicable disease, chicken new town epidemic disease and so on) has provided the effective action; Because measure the and so on synthesis preventing and controlling and disease-resistant breeding use, effectively controlled the potato degeneration sickness, the wheat earth passed on the mosaic, crops plant disease and so on cabbage rape turnip mosaic; Takes the pesticide using the insect virus the research, also vigorously is developing and entered the practical stage. Raise and examination The viral research development frequently has close relationship with the viral raise and the examination method progress, specially in the vertebrate virus aspect, the mouse and the chicken embryo vaccination, the tissue culture, overspeed centrifugal, the gelatin electricity swims, technology and so on electron microscope and immunity determination, has the profound influence to the virology development. Bacteriophage's raise and the examination method are simplest. Vaccinates in the easy feeling bacterium bouillon culture medium the bacteriophage, after 18 ~ 24 hours, the muddy culture medium reis transparent, this time the bacterium decomposes, the massive bacteriophages are released in the bouillon, again passes through eliminates the fungus to filter, namely for rough c nutritive ast bacteriophage. In order to determine bacteriophage the quantity, dilutes the rough cast bacteriophage to each as soon as meets the type and quantity to contain about 100, with the excessive bacterium mix, then the shop plants on the agar-agar even dish, raises in the thermostat passes the night, the bacterium reproduces the cream color substrate, decomposes the region by the bacteriophage on this substrate the performance is the circular transparent spot, is called bites the spot. Bites the spot number representative to be supposed to meet in the type and quantity to have the vigor the bacteriophage quantity. If picks up individually bites the spot to raise, can obtain the descendant which reproduces by the single bacteriophage, achieves the separation purification the goal. The animal virus (sees vertebrate virus) the raise may in the natural host, the experimental animal, in the chicken embryo or the cell raise carries on, died, arises or the pathological change and so on the direct target which reproduces as the virus, or by the blood corpuscle agglutination, the antigen determination and so on takes the indirect target. The harvest arises animal's organization to grind to hangs the fluid or has the pathological change the cell nutrient fluid, namely for rough cast virus. Determines the live viral quantity to be possible to use the spatial spot law, its principle with bites the spot law to be same, but to replace the bacterium by the easy feeling animal monolayer cell, after the vaccination suitable dilution virus, with includes the nutrient fluid and the agar-agar cover, causes the viral infection limitation to form sickness variation area in the small area, the substrate healthy cell is dyed red, sickness variation area does not dye demonstrated is the spatial spot. Until now the plant virus's raise and the examination mostly is carries in the entire plant. Prepares the virus from stamp crushing sickness Ye Zhizhong, commonly used law examination. Dips with the finger mixes has the emery the dilution virus on the plant leaf blade the porch light friction, appears individually the separated circular necrosis after the certain time or draws back the green spot, is called . Besides use virus's pathogenic quota examination virus, but also may the application physics method, if counts the viral pellet under the electron microscope, or with the ultraviolet spectrophotometer determination depuration virus's protein and the nucleic acid quantity, the data which these methods obtained includes had infectiousness and the non- infectious viral grain. Not only can see clearly a viral grain of size using the electron microscope, the shape, but also may distinguish its superficial the protein Asia unit and the interior and so on the ultrastructure. Size and shape Different virus's size change between 20 ~ 450 nanometer. Biggest is the smallpox virus branch, the size is (170 ~ 260) * (300 ~ 450) nanometer, what is smallest is the double joint viral branch, diameter 18 ~ 20 nanometer. Virus's shape also is diverse: Spherical (including two ), if the polio virus and has Bao Mo like the blister measles virus; Rod-shaped (including clavate), like tobacco mosaic virus; Filiform, like beet Chrysanthemum virus; Ball shape, like Shui Paoxing mouth inflammation virus; Complex configuration, like tadpole shape T even number bacteriophage. Some virus assume the natural arrangement of crystal in the cell. Structure The simplest viral center is the nucleic acid, outside 1 in a disorderly way is arranging the protein Asia unit, is called the clothes shell. The construction ready-made clothing shell shape Asia unit is called the shell grain, constitutes the granule by the nucleic acid and the clothes to be called . Outside a more complex virus also has by the lipin and the glycoprot syncopate ein constitutes a package of membrane. different divides into 3 kind of patterns according to the shell grain of arrangement way: Two is symmetrical, like polio virus; Spiral symmetry, like tobacco mosaic virus; Compound symmetry, like T even number bacteriophage. Also has 1 kind of or several kind of glycoprotein on the lipin package membrane, forms in the shape breaks out, like flu virus and neuraminic acid enzyme. In the insect virus has 1 kind of multangular lynchburg body virus, its by the protein crystal , is formed the polygon to forgive the body. Chemical composition The nucleic acid has the genetic code the viral gene group. The virus depends on contains the nucleic acid type to be different may divide into the DNA virus and the RNA virus. The animal virus or contains DNA, or contains RNA; The plant virus besides the few arrays mostly is the RNA virus; The bacteriophage besides the minority branch mostly is the DNA virus. DNA either RNA may be linear or ring-like, may be Shan Lian or the double strand. RNA may sectionalize the section or not sectionalize the section, single chain RNA divides the normal chain and the negative chain. In in the sectionalization section RNA plant virus, the common multi- fissions gene group, namely the identical virus's several RNA festival section separately loads in the clothes shell, forms the size different pellet, some loading separately call the binary fission gene group in two kind of pellets, like cowpea mosaic virus; Some loading separately call three fissions genes group in 3 kind of pellets, like cucumber mosaic virus and mosaic virus. Through the genetics and the biochemistry method, has verified some viral the gene atlas. To MS2 and Phi Chi 174 bacteriophages. The cauliflower mosaic virus, SV40 and the virus nucleic acid nucleotide sequence, has completely verified. (1) protein virus's main component, prefers to divide into the clothes according to its merit , the membrane protein, the glycoprotein and the intrinsic enzyme 4 kinds. The clothes wraps the nucleic acid to form the protection outer covering. The simple virus only has 1 kind of clothes , the more complex like adenovirus clothes shell is by six neighbouring bodies, five neighbouring bodies and the textile fiber 3 kind of proteins constitutes. In has Bao Mo the viral like flu and Shui Paoxing in the mouth inflammation virus, the membrane protein on the one hand links with the outer layer lipin, on the other hand the same interior links, plays maintains inside and outside the virus the structure role. The glycoprotein is located the package of membrane surface, some formations break out, like the flu virus , can and the cell membrane acceptor union. Virus although non- integrity enzyme system, but often includes some special enzymes, like flu virus's neuraminic acid enzyme and bacteriophage's bacteriolysin. In addition, shouts the intestines orphaned virus branch, the ball shape virus branch, is sticking the viral branch and vice- sticks in the viral branch virus grain to contain RNA to gather the enzyme, the counter- record virus branch contains the reverse to record the enzyme, concerns with the nucleic acid duplication. At present has verified several kind of viral proteins the entire amino acid sequence. (2) lipin exists to Bao Mozhong, Bao Mo is mature when the virus or the bud lives from the cell protoplasmic membrane obtains, therefore the viral lipin often has the host cell lipin the characteristic. Destroy the package of membrane lipin with the organic solvent or the detergent, may cause a viral grain of decomposition. (3) sugar besides nucleic acid in pentose, viral Bao Mohuan includes with the protein or the lipin union polysaccharide . The tobacco mosaic virus, the flu virus and the bacillus subtilus bacteriophage's electron microscope picture and the structure pattern chart (sees plant virus, is sticking viral branch and bacterium virus). Duplication The viral duplication refers to the viral grain of invasion host cell to the final cell release filial generation poisonous grain of entire process, including the adsorption, enters with peels off the shell, viral early time step and so on gene expression, nucleic acid duplication, later period gene expression, assembly and release. Each step of detail because of virus but different. The adsorption with enters The T4 bacteriophage first by its silk and the backwoods coli surface acceptor union, along with the afterward sheath contraction, the screw shaft which exposes penetrates the bacterium outer wall, stores up the forehead in DNA to inject bacterium in vivo. The animal virus also is first with the cell acceptor union, later perhaps will depend on the cell to swallow the function to enter, after perhaps viral Bao Mo and the cell protoplasmic membrane fusion will cause to enter. The plant virus is directly pours into through the wound invasion or through the medium insect. In the ordinary circumstances, the virus must pass through peels off the shell outside, namely takes off by the protein release nucleic acid, can make the next step of copy. Gene expression Copies the messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) its nucleic acid on genetic information ( mRNA ), then translates the protein again. Generally in the nucleic acid duplication before name early time gene expression, the early protein which produced, some the enzyme which was the nucleic acid duplication needs, some could suppress the nucleic acid and the protein synthesis; Will start the later name later period gene expression in the nucleic acid duplication, will produce the later period protein mainly constitutes the poisonous grain of structure protein. In the early time and the later period protein all includes some to duplicate the regulative function to the virus the protein. Copies Because of viral nucleic acid type but different, altogether has 6 ways: Double strand DNA (dsDNA) viral like SV40, it copies the way and the host cell is same; Contains single chain DNA (ssDNA) the viral like small DNA virus branch, needs again to copy mRNA after the double strand stage; Contains single chain normal chain RNA (ss+RNA) the viral like polio virus, the tobacco mosaic virus and the Q beta bacteriophage, its RNA may directly take the messenger, synthesizes its encoded protein using host's protein synthesis machine; Contains Shan Lianfu chain RNA (ss-RNA) viral like Shui Paoxing the mouth inflammation virus and the flu virus, must first copy the supplementary normal chain to take its mRNA, the ssRNA counter- record virus like chicken lump virus and the leukemia virus, must first pass through the reverse entire to record dsDNA but to contain to the host chromosome in, to expression when again copies mRNA, contains dsRNA to shout the intestines orphaned virus, then copies and in original double strand normal chain same mRNA by the conservative duplication way. In recent years discovered some virus (for example adenovirus and of SV40) the gene is not continual, has the content division of apparent child and, after copies has the film editing process, but connects the content the apparent child, only then has mRNA the function. Most virus' mRNA also must pass through other processings, if ' adds on the hat in 5 the end "" the structure and adds on in 3 ' the end gathers the adenine nucleotide. The viral gene copies needs the enzyme the origin not to be same, like the small DNA virus branch, the breast soak the viral branch to have to rely on DNA RNA gathers the enzyme, all uses the host original enzyme; But shoots the shape virus branch, is sticking the viral branch, vice- sticks the viral branch and shouts the dependence which the intestines orphaned virus branch needs to RNA RNA to gather the enzyme, as well as the counter- record virus branch needs the reverse records the enzyme, all is the viral grain supplies for oneself. Translation The different viral mRNA translation way is different. Generally thought the bacteriophage the translation is are many along counter- sub-, if on Q beta RNA has 3 along counter- sub- (for single peptide chain encoded gene function unit), may independently translate more than 3 kinds of peptides along 1 mRNA. The animal virus's translation is Shan Shunfan, namely copies different mRNA by its gene group, each kind of mRNA translates more than one kind of peptides. The sectionalization section gene group virus like flu virus and shouts the intestines orphaned virus, every 1 section RNA constitutes 1 along counter-, the multi- fissions gene group's plant virus also is so. Polio virus's mRNA first is translated 1 molecular weight is 200,000 great peptides, then passes through the decomposition to become the clothes and the enzyme. Some virus like Phi Chi 174, the Q beta bacteriophage and SV40 and so on, the existence gene overlap phenomenon, namely according to read the code phase to be different but may express one kind of above from the identical nucleotide sequence the protein. This is the virus economically uses its limited genetic information 1 way. Nucleic acid duplication The DNA virus pairs the way according to the classics watson - Krick alkali base to make the DNA copy. The breast soaks viral ring-like DNA to press when "the rolling ring" the pattern makes the copy, needs to have the nucleic acid enzyme and the connection enzyme participation. Viral RNA passes the more than half retention way duplication, namely take viral RNA (vRNA) as a template, simultaneously copies several supplementary chains (RNA), after RNA copies completes and falls off, also copies vRNA again by the similar way which new goods come into the market. Therefore, may find out in the infection cell has the partial double strands structure but also to tow the multi- strip length different single chain "the tail" (synthesizes the supplementary chain)"the duplication intermediate". The viral nucleic acid duplication needs the enzyme the origin to be also various. The SV40DNA synthesis needs the enzyme all comes from the host. Contains RNA the Q beta bacteriophage, the small RNA virus branch and contains ssRNA the plant virus to need RNA to gather the enzyme some Asian base, possibly by viral gene code, but other Asian base comes from the host. The blister measles virus DNA duplication needs enzyme, partially by viral code, if DNA gathers the enzyme and the chest glucoside activating enzyme, possibly also has the nucleotide to return to original state the enzyme. The smallpox class virus's independent ability is strongest, even can make the DNA copy in the anuclear cell, its gene group at least can be 75 breeding eggs white matter code, gathers including DNA the enzyme, the chest glucoside activating enzyme, the desoxyribonuclease and gathers the nucleotide connection enzyme. Assembly and release The viral nucleic acid and the structure protein are separately duplicates, then the attire matches the integrity the viral grain. The simplest assembly way (for example tobacco mosaic virus) is the nucleic acid and the clothes mutually distinguishes, revolves RNA by the clothes shell Asia unit according to the certain way to gather becomes, does not draw support from the enzyme, also does not need the energy regeneration system. Many two viral grains first gather its clothes shell, then loads the nucleic acid again. Has Bao Mo the virus, the shape coring shifts after the cell to has been decorated by the virus the cell or under the protoplasmic membrane, by bud fresh way release virus grain. The T4 bacteriophage then first separately assembles the forehead, the rear part and the tail silk, the final group synthesizes the complete viral grain, the decomposition bacterium releases, some steps need the enzyme the function. In cell level infection type and host response The very early discovery bacteriophage infection has the decomposition and dissolves the source division of. Take the backwoods coli lamda the bacteriophage as the example, the decomposition infection produces the massive filial generations virus grain after the experience above duplication cycle but to decompose the bacterium; When dissolves the source infection, bacteriophage DNA and the conformity to on the backwoods coli DNA specificity position spot, bequeaths the filial generation along with the bacterium fission the bacterium, the bacterium is not decomposed does not produce the filial generation virus grain. The nutritional conditions, the ultraviolet ray or chemistry medicine all can cause the soluble source infection to transform as the decomposition. Animal's DNA viral like SV40, the adenovirus, the blister measles virus was equal to the infection sensitive cell (is called after allowed cell), forms the decomposition infection, but (is called after the infection not greatly sensitive cell does not allow cell), then forms the infection. the infection with dissolves the source infection to be similar, viral DNA or its fragment conformity in the cell chromosome, and bequeaths the filial generation along with the cell division the cell, expresses its part of genes (generally for early gene), but does not produce the filial generation virus grain, the cell did not die, but is transformed is similar to the tumor cell, but infinite hands down from generation to generation. On the other hand, the RNA tumor virus (for example chicken lump virus) must first record its RNA reverse dsDNA and the conformity to the cell chromosome in, can make the copy, therefore this infection way is unique, not only is the infection, also produces the massive viral grain. The host cell has 4 kinds to the viral infection response: Obvious after not response, cell death, cell proliferation death and cell transformation. For example, vice- sticks viral SV5 to produce the massive virus in the cell raise but not to cause the obvious response. When most viral infection sensitive cell, as a result of has suppressed the nucleic acid and the protein synthesis causes the cell death. When smallpox virus infection, first stimulates the cell to split then the death many times, creates the smallpox blister-blight stove. The DNA virus and the RNA tumor virus cause the cell transformation. Some animals virus after the infection host cell, forms in or the cytoplasm has the special staining kfor microscopek characteristic content, is called forgives the body, if in the smallpox virus's cytoplasm forgives the body and the blister measles virus in forgives the body. These forgive the body to have is by is immature or the mature viral grain constitutes, some are the host cell resultants, some are two mixtures. Some insects virus's viral grain of embedding in the protein matrix, forms forgives the body like nuclear type multangular body virus. After the vertebrate cell infection virus's another kind of response produces the interferon. The interferon is one kind of zooblast encoded protein, its gene usually is at does not move the condition, activates to the viral infection or after the double strand RNA induction. The interferon has Guang Pu the anti- viral function, but certainly the direct action to the virus, its function mechanism is through with the cell membrane union, the activation has the anti- viral function 3 kind of enzymes, has blocked the viral mRNA translation. The interferon in prevented the viral proliferation and the disease restore has the certain function, and has the possibility to become one kind of disease-resistant poisonous medicine. In organism level infection type and host response After higher moves, the plant infection virus, may display for the dominance infects and continues to infect, the animal virus also may display for the silent infection. The silent infection not clinical symptom, the dominant infection performance is the clinical disease; In continues in the infection, virus in organism long-standing. The animal virus continues the infection to divide into the ambush to infect, the chronic infection and long distance infects 3 kinds. The ambush infects like the blister measles, usually does not have the symptom also not to look up the virus, but when inside and outside the factor stimulates recurs appears the virus; Chronic infection like , has or does not have the symptom, but may look up the virus; The long distance infection is restricted in the minority virus, if sheep's Maedi - visna (one kind of counter- record virus infection) may look up the virus; The incubation period and the course of an illness very are all long, carries on the nature to arise until died. The higher animal can have the specificity immune response to the viral infection. The immune response divides into the body fluid immunity and the cellular immunity two kinds, the body fluid immunity performance for the immune body which produces by the B cell, including can specially virus's center and the immune body. Center and the immune body infects the leading role again in the prevention. The cellular immunity main performance is distinguishes the viral antigen and has the response T lymphocyte, in elimination virus and in viral infection cell leading role. The vegetable cell to virus common allergic reaction, the cell rapid death, forms , simultaneously the viral duplication also is restricted. Another kind of response is produces one kind to look like the interferon very much the anti- viral factor, can not protect the cell which infects. Sends the lump function Has some virus to be able to induce the benign tumor, like the smallpox virus branch rabbit fibroma virus, the person infectious mollusc virus and the breast soak the viral branch the papilloma virus; Has in addition some can induce the malignant tumor, may divide into the DNA tumor virus and the RNA tumor virus according to its nucleic acid type. The DNA tumor virus soaks the viral material including the breast SV40 and the multi- lumps virus, as well as the adenovirus branch and the blister measles virus branch certain members, may find out the viral nucleic acid or its fragment and the viral encoded protein from the tumor cell, but generally does not have the integrity the viral grain. The RNA tumor virus is the counter- record virus branch, including the chicken and mouse's leukemia and the sarcoma virus, may look up the viral grain from the tumor cell. These two kind of virus can in vitro transformation cell. In the human tumor, had proven the EB virus has the close relation with the lymphoma and the pharyngeal cancer; Recently, recorded the virus from one kind of T cell leukemia Zha Daofan. In addition, II blister measles virus is possible and the cervical cancer cause of disease related, the virus is possible and the liver cancer cause of disease concerns. But, the virus probably is not the only cause of disease, the environment and the heredity factor is possible the synergism. Origin Once had had all sorts of extrapolation regarding virus's origin; One viewpoint thought the virus is possibly similar to the most primitive life; Another kind thought the virus possibly is degenerates from the bacterium comes, as a result of the high development but has gradually lost the independent life ability, for example the parasitic fungus -> -> sets up the gram inferior body -> -> big virus -> small virus by the saprophytic bacteria -> parasitic fungus -> cell in; Also some one kind thought the virus is possibly the host cell product. These extrapolation respectively has the certain basis, at present still did not have the conclusion. Therefore virus's in biological evolution status is undecided. But, how no matter it primitively does origin after, the virus once produces, is same with other living thing, can evolves through the variation and the natural selection . Classification The viral classification naming work presently is responsible by the international viral classification committee, already in 1,971, 1,976, 1,979 and in 1982 has published 4 reports. In 1982 comparatively was complete the material the viral division which but could classify is 7 big groups, hived off was the basis the gene group's nucleic acid type (DNA or RNA), whether there is the type (ds or ss) and wraps the membrane . In 7 big crowds including 59 sections: DsDNA, has the package membrane 4 branches DsDNA, does not have the package of membrane 8 branches, 1 group SsDNA, does not have the package of membrane 3 branches, 1 group DsRNA, has the package membrane 1 branch DsRNA, does not have the package of membrane 1 branch, 4 possibilities branches SsRNA, has the package membrane 8 branches, 1 group SsRNA, does not have the package of membrane 4 branches, 22 groups, 1 possibility group If according to host classification , then is: Bacterium virus 10 branches Fungus virus 3 possibilities branches Plant virus 24 groups, 1 possibility group Non- vertebrate virus 2 branches, 1 group Vertebrate virus 9 branches Does not have the virus which the vertebra, the vertebrate altogether has to have 6 branches, namely the smallpox virus branch virus branch, the small DNA virus branch, throws over the membrane virus branch, the cloth Nepal Asia virus branch and the small RNA virus branch, as well as a possibility branch, namely two sections double strands RNA virus. Does not have the virus which the vertebra, the vertebrate and the plant altogether has to have 2 branches, namely shouts the intestines orphaned virus branch and the ball shape virus branch. The viral classification also is at the initial period stage, later also will be able rapidly to develop and the evolution. At present has all stood to the material more complete animal virus and the bacteriophage for the branch, the grade uses Latin; But plant virus then only sets up the group, the group name uses shrinks the spelling, soon some branch model shrinks on behalf of virus's ordinary name like Tobacco mo-saic virus spells is Tobamo-virus. Under the branch divides the subfamily and is, the subordinate namely for each virus's ordinary name, at present not yet divides the kind. Biological virus's advantage 1st, the bacteriophage may take prevents and controls certain diseases the medicine, for example the burn patient spreads in the trouble place wipes the green thick bacillus bacteriophage diluent 2nd, in the cellular engineering, certain virus may help as the cytomixis melts the medicinal preparation, for example Sendai virus 3rd, in the genetic engineering, the virus may take the goal gene the carrier, causes it to splice in the goal cell chromosome 4th, the virus which increases in the single-minded bacterium culture medium may eliminate mixed 5th, the virus may take the precision guidance medicine the carrier 6th, the virus may take the special effect pesticide The viral vaccine had anti-virus to the humanity has the advantage -- to promote humanity's evolution, humanity's very many genes all is obtains from the virus The virus is one kind of non- cell life shape, it by a nucleic acid long chain and the protein outer covering constitution, the viral own metabolism organization, has not had the enzyme system. Therefore the virus left the host cell, became any vital activity, has not been able the independent self- reproduction chemical substance. Once after enters the host cell, it may use in the cell the matter and the energy as well as the duplication, copies with the translation ability, contains the genetic information according to it nucleic acid to produce with its same new generation of virus. The viral gene is same with other living thing genes, also may occur changes suddenly and reorganizes, therefore also is may evolve. Because of the viral not independent metabolism organization, cannot the independent reproduction, therefore was considered is one kind of incomplete life shape. In recent years had discovered also wants the virus a to be simpler than kind of virus, it is the young RNA member, does not have the protein outer covering, but it may create the disease on the animal body. These incomplete life shape existence showed lifeless with has between the life not the insurmountable gap. Computer virus The computer virus is not the familiar biological virus which we said, the computer virus is a procedure, a section may carry out the code. But, the computer virus is same on the lifelike virus, has the unique duplication ability. The syngenesis virus same computer virus may very quickly spread, moreover frequently with difficulty eradicates. They can attach oneself in each kind of type document. When the document is duplicated or transmits from a user to another user, they accompany the document together to spread come. Besides the duplication ability, the computer virus also has other some and the biological virus same common characteristic: Can transmit by the viral infection procedure the viral carrier, is similar to the infectious disease. When you saw the viral carrier as if merely displays when the writing and the image, they also have possibly destroyed the document, have formatted again your hard disk, deleted the actuation or has created other each kind of type disaster. If the virus certainly does not parasite to alone the procedure which infects, it also can through occupy the storage space to bring the trouble to you, and reduces your computer complete performance. Is similar with the biological virus in the dissemination is "the computer virus" the name origin. Computer virus's definition May produce the computer virus from the different angle the definition. One kind of definition is: Through the floppy disk, the magnetic tape and the network and so on take the medium dissemination proliferation, can "the infection" other procedures procedures. Another kind is: Can realize own duplication also has the ambush with the aid of the certain carrier existence, the infection and the destructive procedure. Also some definitions are: One kind of artificial manufacture procedure, it through different way ambush or parasitism in memory media (for example floppy disk, memory) or in procedure. When some kind of condition or conditions are ripe, it can from live the duplication and the dissemination, causes the computer the resources to receive different procedure destruction and so on. These views borrowed the biology virus's concept in some kind of significance, the computer virus syngenesis virus similarity have acted can invade the computer system and the network, the harm normal work "the pathogen". It can carry on each kind of destruction to the computer system, simultaneously can the oneself duplication, have the infection. Therefore, the computer virus is can through some way ambush in the computer storage medium (or procedure) in, when achieved when some kind of condition namely having which activates to the computer resources is carried on the destructive effect group of procedures or the instruction set. Is all computer virus is different which with the biological virus all is artificial makes, after sometimes once proliferates continually editor also to be unable to control. It already was not a simple pure computer academic question, but was a serious social question, specially in computer network today, a computer virus manifests suddenly the harm which created possibly a plague also to have to be fiercer than. Several years ago, majority virus mainly through floppy disk dissemination, but, Internet has introduced the new viral transmission mechanism. Serves as along with the present email one kind of communication facility, the virus on compared to formerly any time all must expand quickly. The computer virus is the artificial product, therefore its production and the development are controls with difficulty, issues the statistical data according to the American country computer security association, had surpasses 10,,000 kind of virus to identify, moreover each month all is producing 200 kind of new virus. Edition entry Opening classification: Microorganism , computer , biology , RNA Reference: 1.F. J. Fenner, D. O. White, Medical Virology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York/London, 1976. 2.S. E. Luria, et al. General Virology. 3rd ed. JohnWiley & Sons, New York, 1978. 3. ? Fr=idnw 4. ? Si=1 5. Contributor: Superloveo , the class put on the bee , the middle of the month sentiment silkworm , finalmin , center the branch labor , zlalalal , zhanghe0228 , liufang3721 , the fish wild goose flower month , daqinmeng , robin1123 , zxf76543 , Zhou Tongpan , 412.056029 million , the Yuwen light , ufo2005065 , any false , kukubody , the fact fact fact city , Li Chenglong , the bamboo grove passes the cool breeze , is pecking B the wooden W bird , wangpijie , the ice arrogant This entry is mentioned in the below entry: Stochastic viral , the biology , Virus.Win32.AutoRun.f , Worm.Zush , card Buskie unifies the spatial security , mid- and small-scale enterprise card Buskie the space security , the Asian virus , on January 21 , W32.Beagle.AX @mm , Trojan.PSW.Win32.OnlineGames.yqh , Trojan.Win32.VB.c , Worm.Win32.Agent.o , Email-Worm.Win32.Warezov.ds , the panda burns incense , the cell wall , the browser , , the biology , the information security , the creation discusses , robs the number wooden horse , the whale , the urine road infection , the Alaska sled dog , the AIDS , Microsoft , the electronic government affairs system , the corpse virus , the economical poison , are especially more >> "Virus" in Chinese-English dictionary explanation (origin: Hundred dictionaries ): 1.a virus About this entry commentary (altogether 55) : Examination more commentaries >> .. Too were many fiercely admires wodemimi6240 01-01 09:33 Too were many! ! X19940724 12-28 19:24 Is fierce not does not admire... yushihong669 12-25 08:09 Makes the commentary to this entry: Returns to the page head ©2,008 Baidu Hundred branches tadpoles group

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