every is has this fund to have to read otherwise the ash to regret _ net easy fund

- - I to say for a lifetime: Good: Daytime , black sky. - - The god said that, Is not good, day ~! - - I said that, Good ~! - - The god asks at a loss:Which one day? - - I said that, After my placard all friends live each day ~! ! - - The god has cried... ... Said: Good, later in your card all... 02 year winter once to have about several days daytime -6, that several days oils consumed energy to 13 about. Now these day-long oil consumption about 9.5. Maintenance cost: (Warranty period) in maintains in 2 year /6 ten thousand kilometers all must do in the 4S shop, had not discussed, otherwise lost the maintenance qualifications. Unreasonable also helpless.The 4S shop expense is very high. Meets the 5K kilometer generally only to trade machine oil... subject: MM came in under the discussion the daytime old to makeup Shui Miaozhao recently to be old sense wins honor, specially in office time, two faces clamped always specially do (the possible individual colleague to smoke.. Subject: Re:MM comes in under the discussion the daytime to make up Shui Miaozhao only to atomize always spurts not not well, more spurts more does! Wg0913 subject: Re:MM came in under the discussion the daytime to make up water... to read this article, has listened to this first song which the daytime turned sings, I inthis very moment heart had a heaviness, daytime sang this very much to arrive! Sings the unusual stick! I good like.. Read this article, has listened to this first song which the daytime turns sings, I in this very moment heart have a heaviness, daytime sings this very much to arrive! Sings the unusual stick! My good liked... - F to I gathers - No man or woman is worth your tears, and the one who is, won ' t make you cry. Dresses up my spatial increase attention [ Material collection ] | | Reprints my space Duplication this article website Big typeface Han Dynasty army : Daytime battles the evening to make love Publication time: On January 04, 2008 12 o'clock 19 minute commentaries/browsing ( - / - ) Some period of time I specially am interested to Li Ling. After the parachutist Li broad person, the Li mausoleum solid educational foundation received from family elders, leads troops in the right way, originally to be supposed to do is a generation of great soldier leaves a good name for hundreds of generations, finally actually has become in the Chinese history the most renowned prisoner of war. He always only has hit a war, this war by 5,000 hit 80,000 Hsiungnu cavalry soldier casualties to be serious, has created in the feudal history military miracle. Is sent continually the crossbow fire by the mausoleum armed force to compel under walks, several want to give up Chanyu which besieges to the Li mausoleum remnants of defeated troops, actually surrendered after Li Ling marries own daughter for him, and entrusted with heavy responsibility to him. Li Lingwei loyally returns a favor Martial emperor of Han dynasty, cut has killed his entire family. Sima Qian boldly thrusts forward for Li Ling to defend, suffers the cruel punishment, finally will endure humiliation , writes down the eternity pinnacle of poetic creation "Shihchi". Li Ling when sees somebody off is been stranded Hsiungnu 19 year Su Wu returns to homeland, gets up the dance song to say: "Diameter Wan Lixi , will exert Hsiungnu for Mr.. Lu Qiongjue the arrow edge destroys, the gentleman audiences extinguish already . The old mother has died, although will want to repay a debt of gratitude settles turns over to!" Short several, may for Li mausoleum tragedy and the contradictory life the real portrayal! Li Lingji rich legend color life, may supply the research the place to be very many, my here only is simply records me in to read a question which in the Li mausoleum biography discovered. According to "Han History Volume 54. Li Guangsu Constructs Passes on 24" to record: "The mausoleum also fights also directs, south the number of lines date, arrives at in the mountain valley. The successive battles , in the soldiers the arrow wound, three creating carry , two creating vehicle, as soon as creating holds the soldier to fight. The mausoleum said that, "My morale little fades not being able to blow up, what? In armed force how can there be female?" When the beginning armed force leaves, the Guandong group robber wife accompanies the armed forces for to die the wife woman, greatly conceals in the vehicle. The mausoleum obtains by search, all the sword cuts it." When reads here, I thought very strangely, does is an extremely sharp army, how possibly allows to accompany the armed forces to carry the family member? In turn said, if an army accompanies the armed forces to carry the family member, it also can become crack troops? If the Li mausoleum really all has killed subordinate's wifves, they do not ask Li Ling to do accounts only then blame, how possible loyally delays follows his bloody battle to last the moment? If Sima Qian says: "The extension fights the great distance, an arrow poverty, gentleman Zhang Kongquan, braves the naked sword, north the first struggle mortal enemy, results in the person with all one's strength." Even if the mausoleum armed force period of five days tube dares "to perish falls Hsiungnu", that also is because "for school shame", but is not flushes a crown anger for the young person. Therefore, I extrapolated these "the sword are all cut by the Li mausoleum it" the woman is , but is not "the wife woman". Also looks at these pitiful women's origins: "The Guandong group robber wife ", they are the woman which a crowd because the husband is punished for an offense exiles in the boundary, accompanies the armed forces to be the prostitute is they can not but make perhaps or the quite good one kind of choice, like this only then can reasonably explain I question which proposed in front. Moreover, the Chinese history book has a very big problem, is pays great attention to moral the propaganda. Under such big principle, the distortion history true colors have become in the Chinese history book one kind of habit, this is reads time the Chinese history book must pay attention as necessary. Therefore the historian cannot take down in the Han Dynasty army in the history book to have this historical evidence is it can be imagined. Interesting is, above this event, only sees to Han History, but does not see to "Shihchi" and "Great historic writings of politicization" and so on the history famous work, probably is because person and so on Sima Qian and Sima light both cannot inscribe the Han Dynasty army in the history book to have , and is not willing to cover up or distort the facts in writing official histories the description, finally had simply to give up this section of historical data. Interesting is, European middle ages, also has the similar record: "In 1570, the French commander uneven preparation commanded the army straight hastens Italy, but in the army has come many travel fatigue females, caused the army to march forward takes the trouble. This commander gets rid of this difficult position the method to be specially cruel. According to Braun when records, he was drown to death these pitiful prostitutes at least had 800 people "the Western Love History (the Renaissance Time Volume)" P302." This simply was the Li Lingchuan European edition. "Sui Book Criminal law Will" records "succeeds one another from the Wei Jin, capital crime its heavy, the wife all makes up the soldier." Involves the Southern Dynasty Liang criminal law, including: "Plunders the body all to cut, the wife makes up the soldier." Shen Jiaben "All previous dynasties Criminal law Tests" pointed out that, "Chen (country also) with". Thus it can be seen, the criminal wife enrolls the army, once was the long-term general system. But, after these females enlist in the military what does? Had quite a part to accompany the armed forces the female to act as the janitor, for army safeguard rear service. Also had quite a part to accompany the armed forces the female to be compelled to start . The war the striking contrast which is brutal and the woman attentive forms causes the two often also to appear. Daytime battles, evening makes love, this is as if most conforms with the human sentiment to marching rewarding with food and drink. The Chinese army uses the history is remote. Sima Qian center has recorded this kind of matter in "Shihchi", goes to battle Hsiungnu's time, many servicemen hide the prostitute in the baggage car bring to start off together, Li is broad personally 11 searches these prostitutes completely kills. Soon, that regarded as the woman disasters Li Guangye to perform afterwards to approach the identical play. "Great historic writings of politicization" volume 268 "back rest too ancestor two years": " the king (Zhu) the friend , its mother state camp leads." Hu three provinces notes: Artemisia stelleriana "History": The friend small character remote is happy, the mother loses its surname, this state camp prostitute. In Tang Guangqi, the emperor sacrifices for the state, incurs waits on the bedroom. The month -odd, goes to the shed, to considers. Is when a Yuan loyal empress virtuous has favors, the emperor element fears it, does not take along by the fruit turns over to the summer beam, because keeps the state, stores it by other dwelling. , the prostitute by has a son considers, emperor happy, therefore saying of the character "remote is happy". Latter welcomes turns over to Kaifeng. This story has reflected at that time in the armed force the existence camp prostitute's situation, because this battalion prostitute is commanded holds, its destiny appears slightly good somewhat, although also the poor quilt "the shed goes", but finally or had the good home to return to. Conceives an ordinary soldier the woman, is cannot have so the treatment. Is following time passing, "in armed force not female" the ancient precept is gradually not mentioned, but gradually becomes one kind of relatively universal existence. Tang Dynasty frontier fortress poet Cen Canpian "the Military song center had disclosed in Yumen Guan Gaijiang" General Ge leads the army "in the armed force the safe but the enjoyment, embroiders the curtain is red " leads a life of comfort the life. Altogether 0 commentaries examinations more commentaries $ {layer} the building $ {nick} comments the time: $ {pubdate} $ {content} $ {autograph} | | Altogether 0 commentaries examinations more commentaries Copyright? 1,998 - 2,007 TENCENT Inc. All Rights Reserved leaps news company all rights reserved ^M

3 Kommentare 6.1.08 04:13, kommentieren

Qazwsxedc5: Zhang Bin resigned -- red beancommunity

by the insolation to CCTV the genuine and fake tobe difficult to distinguish for a while . Most newly explodes material Zhang Bin Yi to resignto CCTV? Discloses since the event, the on-line each kind of news is unceasing, two pieces mentioned two litigants should be right to the event.. Wants to select other reply: Re: Zhang Bin has been tabulated by the insolation to CCTV resignation card 8 buildings not as for the resignation? -- Indulges in flights of fancy to reply the time: 2008-1-4... "also to have other means" conveniently to hold a kitchen knife, was simply agile cuts off the connection gas piping rubber hose "like this shuts off the coal gas" Hasegawa: ".. The faci housebreak al color gloomy is difficult the person which distinguishes to perform the puppet show. "This is the new person which must join immediately?" Big evil spirit long Greece fine jade Germany has also crowded, saw this puppet show... cat (21): Now first does not discuss other , I see above you a speech: "Second, I am an evil spirit beastly world area trade union association president, doesnot need to rob any person number".. Reminds each position in this,,766 games networks to play the family friend, the network information is difficult to distinguish really falsely, everybody is sure not the light word to readily believe, incorrectly relays an erroneous message." The original placard is: ... The "Color, Abstains" the fervor scene genuine andfake to be difficult to distinguish initia provoke tes hotly to discuss former days wild Che Mu today the glory to ascend "2,007 miss world" in the throne street corner solid racket - fable back murderer.. Ear: You happy silly young, you cannot see his wife and other man has an affair ~ that happy vigor! ! Eye: My eye does not see for only! Nose: Your boundary is high! Disobeys...

2 Kommentare 5.1.08 23:22, kommentieren

Yuan the Tang stainless net: The Chinese stainless steel first service gateway, China stainless ser

automobile structure to flush inthe eclipse stainless steel production use process with the austenite stainless steel 403 tempered martensite stainless steel pellet the liquid ammonia matters needing attention to change rolls over knowledge more >> stainless steel to change rolls over the material characteristic 3 kind of rolling - - acid pickling to combine the production line the comparison Japan steel rolling theory and the technological development status stainless steel thin steel plate ... [ to seek help ] is the martensite ? Ferrite? Clip Princess 1,1182007-11-10 23:53:51 | luqp1971 [ share ] PE plastic tubing connection application technology synopsis clip Dr. 152 2007-11-10 21:56:08 | luqp1971 [ transfers placard ] several kind of main stainless steel materials main use clamp 153 2007-... austenite stainless steel,3%NaCl to soak after processing examines >= for 48 hours, most Gao Keda several thousand hours. Martensite , ferritic stainless steel after processing in room above 2 years stainless, has used in east Shanghai Chinese s gagging hipbuilding group's 10 thousand-ton liquid gas hull stainless steel deactivation processing with American MSACO Corporation's hardware processing and so on. Detailed content 6 stainless steel... has two kinds, one kind is P21 the low-carbon Ni-A1 effectiveness for a period of time steel; Another kind is the 18Ni martensite effectiveness for a period of time steel. Latter is uses in the astronavigation industry non- carbon high-purity, high strength, the tough material. Uses in mechanics performance, the size precision, the smooth finish and all requests in the high plastic mold. The plastic molding tool steel selects the thin wall to model the feed box body, the production batch martensite wear-resisting welds... the austenite in... like everybody knew very well the steel, in the dual system which is composed by Fe and C, because composes different may form the austenite, the Lai body, the martensite and the bead and so on is different. (2)in the rock salt system, in the crystal lattice as a result of produces the minimum partial flaws to present the special color the compound, in the following sodium vapor heats up the sodium chloride to form Na+ delta Cl (delta <<1)... the martensite transforms the computation (the reply: 0) NiTi texture research (reply: 2) consults the SMA heat conduction problem (the reply: 1)shape memory alloy research (... (reply: 5) consults the martensite to change the question (thereply: 0) seeks help a literature! (Reply: 0) asks Shramm, R. E. and Read, R.P.... the Main terminal: Jiangsu yellow page on-line Yangchow substation: The Yangchow yellow page Baoying yellow page high picosecond postal yellow page meter drafts the yellow page yellow page My yellow page The guest takes the center Home page HOME Purchase Purchase Sale Sale Employment advertise Invite Enterprise storehouse Enterprise Enterprise post office Consult Member registration Your position: The profession classifies the -> supply and demand information Display mode: [ Completely ] [ buys ] [ sells ] [ cooperation ] [ proxy ] [ other ] [ Supply ] Changshu new moving company 51 million [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Changshu ] [ 2008-1-5 19:45:45 ] This company is Changshu moves and provides the household management service the specialized company, the company staff passes through specialized training, the sense of responsibility is strong, the work enthusiasm, may provide the high-quality service for you. Company scale: Has many freight vehicles, the automobile freight transportation length refutes; Has the multi- specialty mover and maintains cleanliness the worker, provides the professional service for you Corporate business: The unit moves, the family happy moves, maintains cleanliness the service, the specialty disassembles and assembles the air conditioning, the water and electricity installment, the pipeline dredges. Company objective: Professional, is honest, the code of honor, the development Obtained this city business unit, the company and the family approval in the corporate growth, wins the general customers the faith and the support. Address: Changshu illustrious article road 9 zip codes: 215,500 telephones: 0512-51000000 0512-50960118 facsimile: Email: Ayl917sina.com.cn website: Www.csxyj.com www.csxyj.cn [ Supply ] Moving company telephone 51 million [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Changshu ] [ 2008-1-5 19:45:45 ] This company is Changshu moves and provides the household management service the specialized company, the company staff passes through specialized training, the sense of responsibility is strong, the work enthusiasm, may provide the high-quality service for you. Company scale: Has many freight vehicles, the automobile freight transportation length refutes; Has the multi- specialty mover and maintains cleanliness the worker, provides the professional service for you Corporate business: The unit moves, the family happy moves, maintains cleanliness the service, the specialty disassembles and assembles the air conditioning, the water and electricity installment, the pipeline dredges. Company objective: Professional, is honest, the code of honor, the development Obtained this city business unit, the company and the family approval in the corporate growth, wins the general customers the faith and the support. Address: Changshu illustrious article road 9 zip codes: 215,500 telephones: 0512-51000000 0512-50960118 facsimile: Email: Ayl917sina.com.cn website: Www.csxyj.com www.csxyj.cn [ Supply ] Changshu moves telephone 51000000 [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Changshu ] [ 2008-1-5 19:45:45 ] This company is Changshu moves and provides the household management service the specialized company, the company staff passes through specialized training, the sense of responsibility is strong, the work enthusiasm, may provide the high-quality service for you. Company scale: Has many freight vehicles, the automobile freight transportation length refutes; Has the multi- specialty mover and maintains cleanliness the worker, provides the professional service for you Corporate business: The unit moves, the family happy moves, maintains cleanliness the service, the specialty disassembles and assembles the air conditioning, the water and electricity installment, the pipeline dredges. Company objective: Professional, is honest, t hornbeam he code of honor, the development Obtained this city business unit, the company and the family approval in the corporate growth, wins the general customers the faith and the support. Address: Changshu illustrious article road 9 zip codes: 215,500 telephones: 0512-51000000 0512-50960118 facsimile: Email: Ayl917sina.com.cn website: Www.csxyj.com www.csxyj.cn [ Supply ] Changshu new moving company 51 million [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Changshu ] [ 2008-1-5 19:45:45 ] This company is Changshu moves and provides the household management service the specialized company, the company staff passes through specialized training, the sense of responsibility is strong, the work enthusiasm, may provide the high-quality service for you. Company scale: Has many freight vehicles, the automobile freight transportation length refutes; Has the multi- specialty mover and maintains cleanliness the worker, provides the professional service for you Corporate business: The unit moves, the family happy moves, maintains cleanliness the service, the specialty disassembles and assembles the air conditioning, the water and electricity installment, the pipeline dredges. Company objective: Professional, is honest, the code of honor, the development Obtained this city business unit, the company and the family approval in the corporate growth, wins the general customers the faith and the support. Address: Changshu illustrious article road 9 thereon zip codes: 215,500 telephones: 0512-51000000 0512-50960118 facsimile: Email: Ayl917sina.com.cn website: Www.csxyj.com www.csxyj.cn [ Supply ] Changshu moves telephone 51000000 [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Changshu ] [ 2008-1-5 19:45:45 ] This company is Changshu moves and provides the household management service the specialized company, the company staff passes through specialized training, the sense of responsibility is strong, the work enthusiasm, may provide the high-quality service for you. Company scale: Has many freight vehicles, the automobile freight transportation length refutes; Has the multi- specialty mover and maintains cleanliness the worker, provides the professional service for you Corporate business: The unit moves, the family happy moves, maintains cleanliness the service, the specialty disassembles and assembles the air conditioning, the water and electricity installment, the pipeline dredges. Company objective: Professional, is honest, the code of honor, the development Obtained this city business unit, the company and the family approval in the corporate growth, wins the general customers the faith and the support. Address: Changshu illustrious article road 9 zip codes: 215,500 telephones: 0512-51000000 0512-50960118 facsimile: Email: Ayl917sina.com.cn website: Www.csxyj.com www.csxyj.cn [ Supply ] Moves [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Changshu ] [ 2008-1-5 19:45:45 ] This company is Changshu moves and provides the household management service the specialized company, the company staff passes through specialized training, the sense of responsibility is strong, the work enthusiasm, may provide the high-quality service for you. Company scale: Has many freight vehicles, the automobile freight transportation length refutes; Has the multi- specialty mover and maintains cleanliness the worker, provides the professional service for you Corporate business: The unit moves, the family happy moves, maintains cleanliness the service, the specialty disassembles and assembles the air conditioning, the water and electricity installment, the pipeline dredges. Company objective: Professional, is honest, the code of honor, the development Obtained this city business unit, the company and the family approval in the corporate growth, wins the general customers the faith and the support. Address: Changshu illustrious article road 9 zip codes: 215,500 telephones: 0512-51000000 0512-50960118 facsimile: Email: Ayl917sina.com.cn website: Www.csxyj.com www.csxyj.cn [ Supply ] Moving company telephone 51 million [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Changshu ] [ 2008-1-5 19:49:59 ] This company is Changshu moves and provides the household management service the specialized company, the company staff passes through specialized training, the sense of responsibility is strong, the work enthusiasm, may provide the high-quality service for you. Company scale: Has many freight vehicles, the automobile freight transportation length refutes; Has the multi- specialty mover and maintains cleanliness the worker, provides the professional service for you Corporate business: The unit moves, the family happy moves, maintains cleanliness the service, the specialty disassembles and assembles the air conditioning, the water and electricity installment, the pipeline dredges. Company objective: Professional, is honest, the code of honor, the development Obtained this city business unit, the company and the family approval in the corporate growth, wins the general customers the faith and the support. Address: Changshu illustrious article road 9 zip codes: 215,500 telephones: 0512-51000000 0512-50960118 facsimile: Email: Ayl917sina.com.cn website: Www.csxyj.com www.csxyj.cn [ Supply ] Changshu moving company [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Changshu ] [ 2008-1-5 19:45:45 ] This company is Changshu moves and provides the household management service the specialized company, the company staff passes through specialized training, the sense of responsibility is strong, the work enthusiasm, may provide the high-quality service for you. Company scale: Has many freight vehicles, the automobile freight transportation length refutes; Has the multi- specialty mover and maintains cleanliness the worker, provides the professional service for you Corporate business: The unit moves, the family happy moves, maintains cleanliness the service, the specialty disassembles and assembles the air conditioning, the water and electricity installment, the pipeline dredges. Company objective: Professional, is honest, the code of honor, the development Obtained this city business unit, the company and the family approval in the corporate growth, wins the general customers the faith and the support. Address: Changshu illustrious article road 9 zip codes: 215,500 telephones: 0512-51000000 0512-50960118 facsimile: Email: Ayl917sina.com.cn website: Www.csxyj.com www.csxyj.cn [ Supply ] Changshu new moving company [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Changshu ] [ 2008-1-5 19:49:59 ] This company is Changshu moves and provides the household management service the specialized company, the company staff passes through specialized training, the sense of responsibility is strong, the work enthusiasm, may provide the high-quality service for you. Company scale: Has many freight vehicles, the automobile freight transportation length refutes; Has the multi- specialty mover and maintains cleanliness the worker, provides the professional service for you Corporate business: The unit moves, the family happy moves, maintains cleanliness the service, the specialty disassembles and assembles the air conditioning, the water and electricity installment, the pipeline dredges. Company objective: Professional, is honest, the code of honor, the development Obtained this city business unit, the company and the family approval in the corporate growth, wins the general customers the faith and the support. Address: Changshu illustrious article road 9 zip codes: 215,500 telephones: 0512-51000000 0512-50960118 facsimile: Email: Ayl917sina.com.cn website: Www.csxyj.com www.csxyj.cn [ Supply ] Changshu moving company [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Changshu ] [ 2008-1-5 19:49:59 ] This company is Changshu moves and provides the household management service the specialized company, the company staff passes through specialized training, the sense of responsibility is strong, the work enthusiasm, may provide the high-quality service for you. Company scale: Has many freight vehicles, the automobile freight transportation length refutes; Has the multi- specialty mover and maintains cleanliness the worker, provides the professional service for you Corporate business: The unit moves, the family happy moves, maintains cleanliness the service, the specialty disassembles and assembles the air conditioning, the water and electricity installment, the pipeline dredges. Company objective: Professional, is honest, the code of honor, the development Obtained this city business unit, the company and the family approval in the corporate growth, wins the general customers the faith and the support. Address: Changshu illustrious article road 9 zip codes: 215,500 telephones: 0512-51000000 0512-50960118 facsimile: Email: Ayl917sina.com.cn website: Www.csxyj.com www.csxyj.cn [ Asks to buy ] EI machine [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Wu river ] [ 2008-1-5 19:46:13 ] E piece not but actually pulls, smooth I piece. The gain in yield/promotion working efficiency and reduces the silicon sheet steel. Telephone: 0512-63008095 60.685275 million contact people: Miss Chen [ Supply ] Cuts the foot machine [ the Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Wu river ] [ 2008-1-5 19:46:13 ] Suitable: Transformer, electric capacity, resistance, electronic components. Function: Is suitable the wonderful shape, the prosperous shape components cuts the foot, the foot is long may from decide by the customer. Voltage: Uses barometric pressure type 220V. Telephone: 0512-63008095 60.685275 million contact people: Miss Chen [ Supply ] Cuts the foot machine [ the Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Wu river ] [ 2008-1-5 19:49:59 ] Suitable: Transformer, electric capacity, resistance, electronic components. Function: Is suitable the wonderful shape, the prosperous shape components cuts the foot, the foot is long may from decide by the customer. Voltage: Uses barometric pressure type 220V. Telephone: 0512-63008095 60.685275 million contact people: Miss Chen [ Supply ] Entire foot machine/spotter plane [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Wu river ] [ 2008-1-5 19:46:13 ] 1st, the operation is simple. 2nd, the torsion intensity may adjust. 3rd, electromotive type (uses motor). Telephone: 0512-63008095 60.685275 million contact people: Miss Chen [ Supply ] Entire foot machine/spotter plane [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Wu river ] [ 2008-1-5 19:49:59 ] 1st, the operation is simple. 2nd, the torsion intensity may adjust. 3rd, electromotive type (uses motor). Telephone: 0512-63008095 60.685275 million contact people: Miss Chen [ Supply ] The enamel-insulated wire escapes the paint machine [ the Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Wu river ] [ 2008-1-5 19:46:13 ] 1st, PE, PVE, APB... Each kind of thermostable enamel-insulated wire certainly with stripping. 2nd, the identical line diameter most produces most is suitable (single laid, round line). 3rd, the twisted curve equally may escape cleanly is rapid, moreover not broken line. 4th, installment type stripping, the efficiency is high. 5th, the line diameter (cutting edge) adjusts rapidly, the cut specification is easy. 6th, line diameter scope 0.5-5.0mm. telephone: 0512-63008095 60.685275 million contact people: Miss Chen [ Supply ] Automatic package adhesive tape machine [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Wu river ] [ 2008-1-5 19:46:35 ] 1st, adhesive plaster inner loop 34mm and 77mm are suitable. 2nd, two shaft-type package of adhesive plaster, the adhesive plaster axle center is away from from 25mm-85mm may adjust. 3rd, sticks the adhesive plaster position to be possible the trimming, the tensity to be possible to adjust. 4th, the different product, the replacement is different . 5th, also may wrap the ferrite core the transformer. Contact person: Chen Juan. Telephone: 0512-63008095, 60.685275 million [ Supply ] But formula winding machine [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Wu river ] [ 2008-1-5 19:46:35 ] Control mode: Microcomputer control. Memory capacity: 999 sections of materials. Main axle speed: 0-4200RPM. Line diameter: 0.03-1.0mm row of line width: 0-100mm telephone: 0512-63008095, contact person: Miss Chen [ Supply ] The vacuum contains the dipping machine [ the Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Wu river ] [ 2008-1-5 19:46:35 ] 1st, this machine interior passes through special processing processing, the durable security is reliable. 2nd, original regards Ming Chuang and the lighting attachment, the inspection function, twice the result with half the effort. 3rd, the double barrel uses in turn, the time-saving province electricity, produces is high. 4th, is industry and so on electron, electrical machinery best contains soaks the equipment. Telephone: 0512-63008095, 60.685275 million contact people: Miss Chen [ Supply ] Six stations types automatic soldering tin machine [ Jiangsu >> Suzhou >> Wu river ] [ 2008-1-5 19:46:49 ] 1st, any vertical horizontal-type transformer all may the soldering tin. 2nd, may automatically dial the tin dregs, the soldering tin highly may adjust. 3rd, may establish the soldering tin time. 4th, the preheater pipe for pulls out , the replacement is easy (tin cup rise soldering tin). 5th, may make two times of soldering tin. 6th, in titanium alloy stove, thermostable most Gao Keda 600 . 7th, the DC ventilator coil and the FBT low-voltage winding, step enters the motor coil, may increase the test and press the even function. 8th, the relay may increase and curved returns to 900 functions. Telephone: 0512-63008095 60.685275 million contact people: Mr. Chen front/Li | The enterprise yellow page | commercial information | on-line registration | network general knowledge | exempts the responsibility to state | contacts with us | Region operation business: Governor Soviet triangle network information service limited company "People's Republic of China Increment Telecommunication service Management Permit" serial number: Soviet B2-20040042 Soviet ICP prepares 05.064699 million Copyright (2,005) 51csj.com All Rights Reserved.

1 Kommentar 5.1.08 13:38, kommentieren

excited concert! ! ! _Frances forever

Hundred home pages | hundred spaces Frances forever Why? Because... I'm Frances Main page abundant guest photo album | personal record file | good friend Examines the article Excited concert! ! ! 2008-01-02 23:48 Just listened to the concert to come back, a word: Amazing! ! ! Fantastic! ! ! Magnificent! ! ! To this is not three words ~ ~ in any case, special stick! ! ! One by one said, that first said "the piano prince", Li Yundi schoolmate! ! ! Really, after sees the first feeling is "this child really leads ~", really very graceful ~ ~ likes the wooden village to develop ah ~ ~ ha-ha ~ ~ today Xiao Li schoolmate plays or the Chopin song, Andante Spianato & Grande Polonaise in E flat major, Op.22 very pleasantly to hear, very moving ~ ~ I sit in the 2nd row, looked the thief was clear ~ ~ had finally understood, Li Yundi ate meal takes the chopsticks to use is "the hand", I ate meal take the chopsticks to use am "the claw" ~ ~ that am a pair of piano, Should play the piano since birth. Looked coming out, he shoots goes all out very much, on the face has all perspired, guarantees inside the advantage to be specially hot, Li Yundi also put on velvet evening dress ~ ~ me to want to let him at that time first scratch the perspiration to shoot ~ ~ pitiful child ~ ~ Xiao Li schoolmate to shoot again, has gotten down ~ ~ ha-ha, our audience very much the cow, continuously continuously applauds today (ha-ha, also included myself ~ ~), Li Yundi answered a curtain call 6 times, had the Canadian 2 songs ~ ~ ha-ha, people's merit! ! Felt Li Yundi very shy, -odd prosperously hints lets him most front answer a curtain call to the stage, he is only willing to hide behind that triangle piano (certainly, that piano in front) ~ ~ ha-ha, he special obvious ~ ~ said again Liao Changyong, this also very fierce, sings Italian opera not to be all unambiguous, the sound special abundance, no wonder multi- Ming Ge likes him ~ also having, this fellow sings the opera very to be unexpectedly also slender ~ ~ also has open healthily one, he is from the American Julie peaceful conservatory graduation! ! That place but musician's cradle! ! ! Moreover heard that place can go in all is the world goes against the level music talented person ~ ~ Angela Gheorghiu, Soprano, the long special unattractiveness, the stature also specially good ~ sings is also good! She sings after, is recalled by ours applause, healthy as soon as sang in a chorus with "La Deme Aux Camelias" the center to toast the song ~ ~ too to be classical! ! They also jumped in the stage section of dances ~ ~ ha-ha, people's ! Tonight most likes the program is the Wang Jian C major cello concerto third music movement! ! ! ! Too classical! ! ! ! ! Wang Jianla qin time I was thorough am been moved! ! ! Originally the Haydn song writes very classical, again is played by Wang Jianla a more classical ~ ~ ~ king to be healthy simply is second Yo-Yo Ma! ! ! He long also specially lovable, eye small, nose small, the mouth is also small.. In any case special lovable! ! ! He at performance time also likes with nose specially loud gasping for breath, specially teases ~ ~ him as soon as to play, in the auditorium has seethed with excitement ~ ~ this is entire audience applause most intense ~ ~ under ours unanimous request, Wang Jian has played, this was the solo, result Canada played is also longer than the official performance program.. This child too was solid! ! ! Also has specially admires his is, he is the Yale graduation... -odd prosperous direction quite is also splendid! ! ! ! He added the quite several speeches ~ ~ ha-ha, today really were too excited! ! Category: Thought | increases to searches for the Tibet | browsing ( ) | the commentary (21) Recent reader: commentary: 1 2008-01-03 00:38 Ha, really is a good excited concert oh! ! ! How do you write charmingly, vivid, all infected our everybody! Piano prince "Li Yundi if comes the speech which Shanghai performs, I also in any event must go looked how oh ~ ~ can you be has bought the 2nd row of seat clip clop? "that is a pair of piano, should play the piano since birth..." He special obvious..." Too envied you! ! ! 2 2008-01-03 00:53 Li Yundi,1,982 years on October 7 had been born in the Sichuan Chongqing. In October, 2000, Li Yundi relies on "E Folk song Concerto" to capture the 14th session of Chopin international pia narcissist no competition gold prize which holds in the Polish Warsaw, becomes the Chopin piano to compete for 70 year youngest prize-winner, for 15 year first the pianist which has the reason to win this big prize, by the reputation is "the piano child prodigy", "the first in the world music talent". 2001 year's end Li Yundi signs a treaty round the world the music DG phonograph record, promotes the first special edition "Chopin To select", the sales volume creates the record, until now he has promoted...... I also have Li Yundi many CD and DVD oh, likes "Encores" An Keji, "Yundi Li: Chopin "," Yundi Li:Liszt "," Chopin: Scherzi.Impromptus "," Yundi Li:Vienna Recital ".. etc. Also some many he DVD which plays at each kind of concert and so on, extremely likes Liszt which he shoots "La Campanella" & "Liebestraum No.3", as well as all Chopin ~ ~ Your description lets the feeling which I has plants experiences personally, actually even more lets me think of "seeing something once better than hearing hundred times" that saying ~ ~ 3 2008-01-03 01:03 Frances, you said "Liao Changyong this fellow will sing opera unexpectedly also very slender"? Ha ha, smiled dies I, you probably were lose weight reduce a little overstate ~ ~ He is by the reputation is "the most exquisite Chinese people baritone"! On October 25, 1968 Chinese Sichuan Chengdu Pi county ancient city and countryside two batardeaux villages In 1995 graduated by the master's degree from the Shanghai conservatory In August, 1997 Norwegian "Song Ya Queen the" international vocal music competed first In 1994 the France Paris International vocal music competition best French song sang the prize In September, 1996 French 41st session of chart Lu this international vocal music big game first big prize In June, 1997 bright spear world opera big game first big prize...... Multi- Ming Ge certainly likes him! Open healthy one and Wang Jiandu is from the US professionally-trained worker oh! 4 2008-01-03 01:30 Honestly speaking, Li Yundi is very graceful, moreover this is a very important target causes me to think he ringing is better than ~ ~ ha-ha, always thought ringing somewhat makes Xiu's feeling, the cloud enlightens the schoolmate to have musician's feeling ~ ~ always to think very much the musician should be unusual refined, is ignorant of affair, naive, likes fantasizing.. The musician was not after all the entertainer... ringing too trade, too has only enlightened like the entertainer ~ cloud in overseas quite is famous ~ ha-ha Liao Changyong will be calculated thin, you looked will sing the opera one each one all to resemble with the orangutan (ha-ha, inappropriate analogy ~) ~ ~ Really specially likes Wang Jian! ! Also has the possibility is the comparison likes cello ~ him and the cloud enlightens long all not to like, but two people both have the same feeling, very humble, is very shy, has the artistic breath very much ~ ~ On comes Beijing from 5 years old with the parents to listen to the new year concert together (at that time Hou Jiahuan in Jinan, but also rides train/airplane to come Beijing specially to listen Lohwei ~), all has formed a habit ~ ~ although my piano doesn't have persisted how well, but actually has raised the music interest ~ ~ ha-ha, or compares thank the parents to raise my this hobby ~ ~ 5 2008-01-03 02:53 I always thought Li Yundi and ringing is , those two all are in the present world the most apex level young talent pianist! ! ! Ringing extremely receives in US welcome, well-knownness is very high, but relative receives the silver but actually really to send the race affection! Has said (possibly is single opinion) ringing in gazing which China as soon as starts not to receive should have, is because of he very at will American Style, after did not like then also Li Yundi to become famous very quickly obtains extreme specialized the commercial packing, widely known! Li Yundi really leads, but ringing very handsome is also bright? ? ! ! Sings the opera one each one all to resemble with the orangutan? Ha ha ~ ~ will only like Liao Changyong such capably will be indeed very rare at the opera ~ ~ You on come Beijing from 5 years old with the parents to listen to the new year concert together? Ha! Good is happy oh! Yes, learns to play the piano generally all is since childhood for raise the music the interest, I also and you are same, some how many people can have Li Yundi, ringing they such talent oh! 6 2008-01-03 09:52 My at that time marquis as soon as saw the piano to want to spit ~ ~ me all quickly to have a mortal hatred of the piano ~ ~ each time all t accordion o want at that time to practice the qin in the home also to have no way to play! ! ! I in childhood continuously all quite mischievous, peacefully lets me sit down 10 minutes I all to unable to sit still, let alone practiced the qin ~ ~ moreover my mother specially to be also severe to me, frequently took the ruler to hit my claw ~ ~ hum ~ therefore did not have any good impression since childhood to the ball piano ~ ~ But music ~ ~ ha-ha, or very likes ~ ~ ha-ha, I did not know why like this, always thought my mother hits me and the music does not touch on slightly, the music very happy very is always sacred ~ ~ P.s forgot to say, I thought Li Yundi yesterday hairstyle very good ~ ~ ha-ha, very is continuously all good ~ ~ does not like present popular such, each male student's hair was not is has the romanticism breath like the hedgehog like Zhou Jielun ~ ~ Li Yundi hairstyle comparison ~ ~ ha-ha also to have, always thought the Wang Jianchang picture Japanese ~ ~ hairstyle also liked ~ ha-ha 8 2008-01-03 13:03 In the US. almost all major critics prefer Li (New York Times, for instance). They say that Li and Lang Lang are equally talented, but Li is the one who is more poetic, more probing and has depth. Lang Lang is more superficial. The others said ~ ~ only I thought said very to.. 2 kind of different style, , depend on ur taste, prefer poetic or superficial~ 9 2008-01-03 18:13 Whatever~~~~~ I only know ringing, moreover had proven the Chinese talented person is a superior nationality! ! ! China too needs this kind of person to be good the foreigner dregs steps on under the foot! ! ! ! ! ! 10 2008-01-03 18:20 China has very many very splendid, the world first-class musician, enlarges violin Yo-Yo Ma, the king is healthy; Ball piano Li Yundi, ringing all is ~ ~ Chinese is intelligent ~ ~ ha-ha, but ringing apparented joins the beautiful nationality ~ ~ also is only a Chinese! 11 2008-01-03 22:18 Young Chen, you regardless of said any, all can let the person laugh oh ~ ~ only your speech also really to make sense! ! ! Frances, the critic said Li Yundi is more poetic, more probing and has depth is extremely appropriatelies! Must know Chopin's song, the light from the skill to say, difficulty very high, in addition Chopin element by piano poet world-famous, must simultaneously perfectly knead together and express that kind of poem the romantic ideal condition, that is not easier! Li Yundi can when his 18 years old, depends on "E Folk song Concerto" to capture the 14th session of Chopin international piano competition gold prize which holds in the Polish Warsaw, becomes the Chopin piano to compete for 70 year youngest prize-winner, the reality is the talent! The Chopin international piano competition is every five years only then, in front of him already had continuously two vacancies (rather to lack do not overflow), therefore said Li Yundi was for 15 year first the pianist which had the reason to win this big prize! 12 2008-01-03 22:38 The commentary always is Li Yundi and Lang Lang the comparison, that fully explained those two are the identical rank standard musician In the newspaper always said they are Two huge, distinct talents! ! ! Early time, << the Chicago forum >> the commentary said that, Such for many years, the court attendant bright has been allowed to call on is this time is most outstanding, greatest young musician! He plays a stringed musical instrument is similar to speaks the story dramatically ~ ~ his performance already to receive the American audience also to receive Germany to like, relatively says, the German and Austrian crazier, many Germans are possibly listening to Lang Lang performance, can be able not help to burst into tears, perhaps is because these two countries like the music the person quite are many ~ ~ ~ ~ 13 2008-01-03 22:58 The court attendant was bright once plays on the American President Bush's invitation in the White House, this throughout history the first place Chinese musician attains this great honor! ! ! Whole families Bush all are Lang Lang bean or sweet potato starch noodles, ha-ha ~ ~ ~ ~ The English Charles prince extremely likes the classical music, also specially hoped the son William prince likes the classical music, he once hoped Lang Langneng affects William, lets him like the classical music, after soon, Charles satisfiedly tells the court attendant brightly: "Recently discovered in the building the rock and roll static have been little many, possible William to be brightly affected the court attendant already falls in love the classical music." ~ ~ Li Yundi also repeatedly in world each place and so on US performed in recent years, more and more for the American audience understood and the affection, each kind of high praise were more and more many, also was the logical matter! Anyway, Li Yundi and the court attendant are bright, all is our Chinese's arrogant! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 14 2008-01-04 00:08 I am very like the classical music.... but, I also extremely deeply love ~ ~ specially am gothic rock ~ ~ ~ I am the contradictory body.... 15 2008-01-04 00:31 Oh. . . Frances speaks this to be called Chen to be humorous! ! ! But I am cannot smile ~~~~ I but actually to think I discriminate against foreigner ~~~~ to have the Nazi very much to favor the ~~~~ ha ha Kazak I like He Jie! ! ! ! Ha ha ~~~ only is because it is long very likes that ~~~ ha ha ~~~~ not to have. . . I but actually very little listen to classical music ~~~~ 16 2008-01-04 00:35 What is clean ~ ~ Ya, did not say any ~ 17 2008-01-04 01:13 This indicated frances Chen is humorous has not studied proficiently, young Chen? You like what being clean? I like Jin Sha! She and Lin Junjie sings in a chorus << has been blown by the wind the summer >>, listens well oh! ! The song is the forest handsome masterpiece, tries following two Links: ? Word=%B1%BB%B7%E7%B4%B5%B9%FD%B5%C4%CF%C4%CC%EC&pos=1&s=3 Mentioned skillfully, most recent several days have just bought Jin Sha's CD, inside had two, discovered second was He Jie, waited me also to listen to look He Jie sang ~~~ 18 2008-01-04 02:41 Chen is humorous? The young Chen's thing I do not embezzle copyright oh ~ ~ me to like a Chinese singer, Chen Chu have lived ~ ~ but the present to think at that time marquis also very silly ~ ~ recently again listened to "Tell mw why", the very fine child's voice, the sound is very clean ~ likes ~ ~ singing this first song child now and my almost great ~ ~ 91 year December ~ 19 2008-01-04 03:09 He Jie and Brother Li Yundi is discussing the love oh. On-line has explodes. . . Day before yesterday for great triumphantly made the phone call, I said Li Yundi was holding reporter to look for the girlfriend, I said I thought Li Yundi and He Jieting appropriate, was the piano prince, in collected, makings good, was the bold super female voice, the disposition just right supplementary, was the Chongqing person, was the Guizhou person, the meal taste is also consistent. I said I very want to make an intermediary to them. Great triumphantly reaches an agreement, our this Thursday meets chats. Had not thought this morning reads the news, what clean unexpectedly night rushed the traffic accident, for great triumphantly made the phone call not to also meet. It seems like, this Duan Ximei temporarily must slowly. 20 2008-01-04 03:09 Explodes the material address 21 2008-01-04 05:24 Frances, "Chen the humorous" affirmation has not applied for the copyright, you Don't worry, ha-ha ~ ~ mmm, my friend also gives me to recommend Chen the Chu fresh song, has listened to several, also sings good! You said "Tell mw why", is sings by English child star Declan Galbraith? His 4 years old start to expose sing the talent,8 years old to start to attend some music competitions, and once won 16 big prizes in 14 months that? 22 2008-01-04 10:15 1,920 buildings are any ~ ~ corona ~ To, was that Declan Galbraith, the childhood sound very good, but present ~ can say ~ ~ or the child's voice to be good general ~ ha-ha © 2,008 Baidu # 51 on Saturday January 19th 2,008! Who I'd like to meet: Hong Kong musicians, Hong Kong bands, Hong... 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1 Kommentar 4.1.08 06:28, kommentieren

Luo in the spear

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1 Kommentar 2.1.08 05:23, kommentieren

merry forest activated charcoal | activated charcoal | Liaoning | Dalian activated charcoal | activ

3,product quality first-class, "the merry forest" the spherical activated charcoal, is uses internationally advanced makes the hole technology, after is continues US second can produce the high-quality spherical activated charcoal the enterprise, its product gas phase adsorption performance obviously surpasses the bamboo coal, the husk coal, the coconut shell coal and the domestic other ordinary activated charcoal. 4th, well-knownness is high, "the merry forest" the activated charcoal is the national home use activated charcoal... BET France and Belgium surface examination ( physisorption ) 2007-12-29 Chu chou city exudes the peaceful instrument limited company [ other local/Zhejiang ] the principle and the method nitrogen adsorption law, single-layer and the multilayered adsorption theoryBET relative surface determination (multi- spots law, ), the Langmuir relative surface measured... 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The zeolite may adsorb in the water organic and the inorganic member, what is common is the methyl alcohol, the ammonia and so on a smaller member, these material majorities are the protein separator and the activated charcoal can process scope... Hundred home pages | register Hundred hundred branches > glance over the entry The edition entry publishes the commentary history edition printing to increase to searches for Tibet Small tips " What is the related entry? Related entry " " Bacterium " Fungus " Puts " Sets up the gram inferior body " Disease germ " " " Virus [ Biology noun ] Is a kind of individual is small, the non- complete cell structure, contains the sole nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), must in the living cell parasitic and the duplication non- cell micro biology . Originally refers to the toxin which one kind of animal originates. "virus" an etymology to Latin. The virus can multiply, the heredity and the evolution, thus has the life most basic characteristic. Its main characteristic is: (1) Includes the sole kind of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) the gene group and the protein outer covering, does not have the cell structure; (2) Same now and then later releases its nucleic acid in the infection cell, then by nucleic acid duplication way multiplication, but is not by the binary fission way multiplication; (3) In strict cell . Because virus's structure and component simple, some virus also are easy to raise and the quota, therefore after the 20th century 40's, the virus throughout is the molecular biology research important material. In the practice aspect, virus's research to prevented and controlled human, the plant and animal's disease has made the important contribution. If the viral vaccine development, takes the pesticide using the insect virus and so on. In 1982 was complete the viral division the material which but could classify is 7 big groups: (Double strand) ds DNA, has the package membrane; (Double strand) ds DNA, does not have a package of membrane; (Single chain) ss DNA, does not have a package of membrane; (Double strand) ds RNA, has the package membrane; (Double strand) ds RNA, does not have a package of membrane; (Single chain) ss RNA, has the package membrane; (Single chain) ss RNA, does not have a package of membrane. "virus" an etymology to Latin , originally refers to the toxin which one kind of animal originates . The virus can multiply, the heredity and the evolution, thus has the life most basic characteristic, but until now does not have the recognition to it the definition. At first uses for to distinguish viral the character, like the individual is small, generally cannot see under the light microscope, the passable bacterium has not been able through the filter, cannot grow on the artificial culture medium , have and so on pathogenically, now as before has the practical significance. But from essentially differentiates viral and other living thing characteristics is: (1) Includes the sole kind of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) the gene group and the protein outer covering, does not have the cell structure; (2) Same now and then later releases its nucleic acid in the infection cell, then by nucleic acid duplication way multiplication, but is not by the binary fission way multiplication; (3) In strict cell . The virus lacks the independent metabolism ability, only can in the live host cell, duplicate its nucleic acid and the synthesis using the cell biosynthesis machine by its nucleic acid encoded protein, the final attire matches the integrity, has the infectious viral unit, namely viral grain. The viral grain is the virus from the cell to the cell or from the host to the host dissemination main form. At present, a viral word implication may be: Refers to these in the chemical composition and the multiplication way is the alone characteristic, only can make the copy in the host cell the microorganism or the hereditary unit. Its characteristic is: Only includes one kind of type the nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) takes the genetic information the carrier; Does not include the function ribose body or other cell organs; The RNA virus, the completely genetic information all codes on RNA, this kind of situation in the biology is unique; The volume is much smaller than the bacterium, only includes the minority several kind of enzymes class; Cannot multiply in the lifeless culture medium, must rely on the host cell the metabolism system to duplicate own nucleic acid, the synthetic protein and assembles the integrity the viral pellet, or called the virus the body (integrity viral pellet is refers to mature viral individual). Virulent archery target duality; First, viral life form duality 1st, the viral existence dual virus's vital activity is very special, has absolutely to the cell depends on for existence the nature. Its existence form has two: One is the extracellular form, one is in the cell the form. When exists to the extracellular environment, then does not reveal the duplication activeness, but maintenance infection activeness, is the viral body or the viral pellet form. Enters the cell model of domestic virtue disintegration to release the nucleic acid member (DNA or RNA), borrows in the cell the environment condition to make the copy by the unique vital activity system, is for the nucleic acid member form. 2nd, virus's crystallinity and the amorphic substance virus may depute is a crystal. We knew the crystal is a chemistry concept, is the very many inorganic compounds existence one kind of form, we may think certain virus have chemistry crystal and the vital activity two kind of forms. 3rd, the pellet form and the gene form virus exists by the pellet form outside the cell, this time, only has infectiousness. Once the infection cell virus disintegration releases the nucleic acid gene group, then can make the copy and the multiplication, and produces the new filial generation virus. Some viral gene group conformity to the cell gene group, multiply along with the cell reproduction, this time the virus namely multiplies by the gene form, but is not multiplies by the pellet form, this is one way which the viral ambush infects. Second, viral structure and function duality 1st, standard virus and flaw virus in virus's multiplication process, because its gene group because some kind of micro environmental factor influence or copies the process the mistake to have the sudden change, so that has the assembly not entire virus pellet production, is called the flaw virus, produces the flaw virus originally to kiss a generation of virus, then is called the standard virus, the flaw virus pellet has the disturbance standard sickness reproduction the function. 2nd, the vacation virus and the real viral one kind of cell has the situation which two kind of virus simultaneously infects, in the multiplication process, one kind of virus may put on itself outer covering, this is the real virus, is this kind of virus should have "the appearance"; If one kind of virus's nucleic acid by another viral encoded outer covering, then is called the vacation virus, this time one kind of virus's original nature, is covered by another kind of virus's nature. When 3rd, hybrid virus and purebred viral two kind of virus mixes infection, besides appears the vacation virus, but also has the possibility to appear the viral nucleic acid reorganization the situation, namely in one kind of viral pellet, may include two kind of viral the genetic material, this may be called the hybrid virus, in the price after discount virology a quite common phenomenon. Third, viral disease Neo-Confucianism duality 1st, virus's pathogenicity and the non- pathogenicity about the pathogenicity and the non- pathogenic question, are, in the molecular level, the cell level and the organism level which relative says with the host cell, possibly has the different meaning. Has the cell pathological change function in the cell level, but in the organism level possibly certainly did not demonstrate the clinical symptom, this may be called the Asian clinical infection or not reveal the infection. 2nd, the viral infection acute and the chronic viral infection is the result of the clinical symptom has, the slow division anxiously, some virus generally only display the acute infection but very little to display the chronic infection; Some then already has the acute process, also has the chronic process. At present to virus's concept may be: The virus is in the metabolism does not have activeness, has infectiousness, but not necessarily has the pathogenic money, they are smaller than the cell, but is bigger than the majority macro-molecule, they reproduce without exception in the life cell, they include protein or the lipoprotein outer covering and one kind of nucleic acid, D N A or R N A, even only includes the nucleic acid but in to have the protein, or only has the protein not to have the nucleic acid, they took the macro-molecule as if too is complex, takes the organism their physiology and the duplication way differ in thousands of ways. Lwoff in "virus's concept" in an article emphasized viral when particularity pointed out, "the virus should be a virus, because they are the virus". Virus's shape (1) spherical virus; (2) rod-shaped virus; (3) brick shape virus; (4) has Bao Mo the spherical virus; (5) has the spherical forehead the virus; (6) seals to containing in vivo the insect virus. Virus's size The bigger viral diameter is 300 - 450 nanometer, the smaller viral diameter is only 18 - 22 nanometer Virus's composit anonymous ion The virus mainly is composed by the nucleic acid and the protein outer covering. Virus's copy process is called the duplication cycle. It approximately may divide into the continual five stages: The adsorption, the invasion, peels off the shell, the viral macro-molecule synthesis, virus's assembly and the release Virus's classification The international viral classification committee (I C N V) the seventh report (1,999), will possess the known virus to divide into D N A viral - single laid D N according to the nucleic acid type the A virus, D N A viral - D N the A virus, D N A and R N the A reverse records the virus, R N A viral - R N the A virus, R N A viral - Shan Lian, single laid R N the A virus, exposed R N the A virus and a kind of virus and so on eight will be big . In addition, but also additionally builds an Asian virus factor kind. This report approval viral approximately 4,000 kinds, are equipped with three viral item, 64 viral branches, 9 viral subfamilies, 233 virus are, 29 virus are for the independent virus are. The Asian virus factor , not and is. Including satellite virus and prion (infectious protein pellet or virus ). Some attributes not very explicit are the name to establish provisionally the virus is. The virus is widespread in the nature distribution, may infect the bacterium , the fungus , the plant , the animal and the person , often causes the host to arise. But in many situations, the virus also may but not cause the obvious disease with the host coexistence. Brief history Before discovery virus, the people already start not on own initiative to use the virus to serve for the humanity. China around 16th century, uses the smallpox patient center the size to vaccinate for the healthy person causes it to obtain the immunity. Almost at the same time, Holland's planters with marry the connection to cause the tulip infection virus to bloom the beautiful garrulous color flowers; In 1796 E. has invented ; In 1885 L. Louise originated the rabies vaccine. In 1892 . . Ivanov Si Ji discovered the trouble tobacco mosaic the leaf tobacco juice after the detention bacterium filter, still retained its infectiousness; In 1898 M. W. did obeisance Ye Linke to discover once more this fact, and pointed out this sickness was a kind causes with the bacterium different pathogen. This is knows viral the beginning. Later one after another discovered many human, the plant and animal's diseases are cause by the virus. In 1898 F. A. J. forced with P. Fu Luo Shi has discovered cow's foot-and-mouth disease virus; In 1915 F. W. especially and in 1917 the F. Egypt thunder you had separately discovered the bacterium virus is a bacteriophage . Starts from the 30's to explore viral the physics and chemistry nature, M. Schlesinger has deputed the bacteriophage and pointed out it was constitutes by the protein and DNA; In 1935 W. M. Stanley has obtained the tobacco mosaic virus's crystallization ; In 1936 saw for the first time under the electron microscope this virus is one kind of rod-shaped pellet. Later many virus one after another are deputed, has conducted the research to their shape structure and the chemical composition, has provided the basis for the viral classification. Because virus's structure and component simple, some virus also are easy to raise and the quota, therefore since the 20th century 40's, the virus throughout has been the molecular biology research important material. At the end of 30's, by M. cloth Lu Kewei a representative's school of scholar starts with the backwoods coli T even number bacteriophage to study its duplication and the heredity mechanism, has laid the molecular genetics foundation. The 70's, the research gradually change the animal virus with emphasis. In the molecular biology development important progress, like DNA and RNA are the genetic material proof, three union body passwords theory formation, nucleic acid duplication mechanism exposition, inherits the information flow center principle proposing, the reverse records the enzyme , gene overlapping discontinously with and so on the discovery, down to genetic engineering starting with the theory development, nearly does not have one does not concern with the virus. Some protein and a nucleic acid level of structure analysis, also frequently is first completes take the virus as the material research. In turn, the molecular biology research promoted to the viral structure, the duplication and the heredity understanding, causes the virology to develop an independent branch discipline. In the practice aspect, virus's research to prevented and controlled human, the plant and animal's viral disease has made the important contribution. The viral vaccine development, for controlled the human disease (for example smallpox, yellow fever, polio , measles and so on) and the poultry disease (for example , pig acute communicable disease, chicken new town epidemic disease and so on) has provided the effective action; Because measure the and so on synthesis preventing and controlling and disease-resistant breeding use, effectively controlled the potato degeneration sickness, the wheat earth passed on the mosaic, crops plant disease and so on cabbage rape turnip mosaic; Takes the pesticide using the insect virus the research, also vigorously is developing and entered the practical stage. Raise and examination The viral research development frequently has close relationship with the viral raise and the examination method progress, specially in the vertebrate virus aspect, the mouse and the chicken embryo vaccination, the tissue culture, overspeed centrifugal, the gelatin electricity swims, technology and so on electron microscope and immunity determination, has the profound influence to the virology development. Bacteriophage's raise and the examination method are simplest. Vaccinates in the easy feeling bacterium bouillon culture medium the bacteriophage, after 18 ~ 24 hours, the muddy culture medium reis transparent, this time the bacterium decomposes, the massive bacteriophages are released in the bouillon, again passes through eliminates the fungus to filter, namely for rough c nutritive ast bacteriophage. In order to determine bacteriophage the quantity, dilutes the rough cast bacteriophage to each as soon as meets the type and quantity to contain about 100, with the excessive bacterium mix, then the shop plants on the agar-agar even dish, raises in the thermostat passes the night, the bacterium reproduces the cream color substrate, decomposes the region by the bacteriophage on this substrate the performance is the circular transparent spot, is called bites the spot. Bites the spot number representative to be supposed to meet in the type and quantity to have the vigor the bacteriophage quantity. If picks up individually bites the spot to raise, can obtain the descendant which reproduces by the single bacteriophage, achieves the separation purification the goal. The animal virus (sees vertebrate virus) the raise may in the natural host, the experimental animal, in the chicken embryo or the cell raise carries on, died, arises or the pathological change and so on the direct target which reproduces as the virus, or by the blood corpuscle agglutination, the antigen determination and so on takes the indirect target. The harvest arises animal's organization to grind to hangs the fluid or has the pathological change the cell nutrient fluid, namely for rough cast virus. Determines the live viral quantity to be possible to use the spatial spot law, its principle with bites the spot law to be same, but to replace the bacterium by the easy feeling animal monolayer cell, after the vaccination suitable dilution virus, with includes the nutrient fluid and the agar-agar cover, causes the viral infection limitation to form sickness variation area in the small area, the substrate healthy cell is dyed red, sickness variation area does not dye demonstrated is the spatial spot. Until now the plant virus's raise and the examination mostly is carries in the entire plant. Prepares the virus from stamp crushing sickness Ye Zhizhong, commonly used law examination. Dips with the finger mixes has the emery the dilution virus on the plant leaf blade the porch light friction, appears individually the separated circular necrosis after the certain time or draws back the green spot, is called . Besides use virus's pathogenic quota examination virus, but also may the application physics method, if counts the viral pellet under the electron microscope, or with the ultraviolet spectrophotometer determination depuration virus's protein and the nucleic acid quantity, the data which these methods obtained includes had infectiousness and the non- infectious viral grain. Not only can see clearly a viral grain of size using the electron microscope, the shape, but also may distinguish its superficial the protein Asia unit and the interior and so on the ultrastructure. Size and shape Different virus's size change between 20 ~ 450 nanometer. Biggest is the smallpox virus branch, the size is (170 ~ 260) * (300 ~ 450) nanometer, what is smallest is the double joint viral branch, diameter 18 ~ 20 nanometer. Virus's shape also is diverse: Spherical (including two ), if the polio virus and has Bao Mo like the blister measles virus; Rod-shaped (including clavate), like tobacco mosaic virus; Filiform, like beet Chrysanthemum virus; Ball shape, like Shui Paoxing mouth inflammation virus; Complex configuration, like tadpole shape T even number bacteriophage. Some virus assume the natural arrangement of crystal in the cell. Structure The simplest viral center is the nucleic acid, outside 1 in a disorderly way is arranging the protein Asia unit, is called the clothes shell. The construction ready-made clothing shell shape Asia unit is called the shell grain, constitutes the granule by the nucleic acid and the clothes to be called . Outside a more complex virus also has by the lipin and the glycoprot syncopate ein constitutes a package of membrane. different divides into 3 kind of patterns according to the shell grain of arrangement way: Two is symmetrical, like polio virus; Spiral symmetry, like tobacco mosaic virus; Compound symmetry, like T even number bacteriophage. Also has 1 kind of or several kind of glycoprotein on the lipin package membrane, forms in the shape breaks out, like flu virus and neuraminic acid enzyme. In the insect virus has 1 kind of multangular lynchburg body virus, its by the protein crystal , is formed the polygon to forgive the body. Chemical composition The nucleic acid has the genetic code the viral gene group. The virus depends on contains the nucleic acid type to be different may divide into the DNA virus and the RNA virus. The animal virus or contains DNA, or contains RNA; The plant virus besides the few arrays mostly is the RNA virus; The bacteriophage besides the minority branch mostly is the DNA virus. DNA either RNA may be linear or ring-like, may be Shan Lian or the double strand. RNA may sectionalize the section or not sectionalize the section, single chain RNA divides the normal chain and the negative chain. In in the sectionalization section RNA plant virus, the common multi- fissions gene group, namely the identical virus's several RNA festival section separately loads in the clothes shell, forms the size different pellet, some loading separately call the binary fission gene group in two kind of pellets, like cowpea mosaic virus; Some loading separately call three fissions genes group in 3 kind of pellets, like cucumber mosaic virus and mosaic virus. Through the genetics and the biochemistry method, has verified some viral the gene atlas. To MS2 and Phi Chi 174 bacteriophages. The cauliflower mosaic virus, SV40 and the virus nucleic acid nucleotide sequence, has completely verified. (1) protein virus's main component, prefers to divide into the clothes according to its merit , the membrane protein, the glycoprotein and the intrinsic enzyme 4 kinds. The clothes wraps the nucleic acid to form the protection outer covering. The simple virus only has 1 kind of clothes , the more complex like adenovirus clothes shell is by six neighbouring bodies, five neighbouring bodies and the textile fiber 3 kind of proteins constitutes. In has Bao Mo the viral like flu and Shui Paoxing in the mouth inflammation virus, the membrane protein on the one hand links with the outer layer lipin, on the other hand the same interior links, plays maintains inside and outside the virus the structure role. The glycoprotein is located the package of membrane surface, some formations break out, like the flu virus , can and the cell membrane acceptor union. Virus although non- integrity enzyme system, but often includes some special enzymes, like flu virus's neuraminic acid enzyme and bacteriophage's bacteriolysin. In addition, shouts the intestines orphaned virus branch, the ball shape virus branch, is sticking the viral branch and vice- sticks in the viral branch virus grain to contain RNA to gather the enzyme, the counter- record virus branch contains the reverse to record the enzyme, concerns with the nucleic acid duplication. At present has verified several kind of viral proteins the entire amino acid sequence. (2) lipin exists to Bao Mozhong, Bao Mo is mature when the virus or the bud lives from the cell protoplasmic membrane obtains, therefore the viral lipin often has the host cell lipin the characteristic. Destroy the package of membrane lipin with the organic solvent or the detergent, may cause a viral grain of decomposition. (3) sugar besides nucleic acid in pentose, viral Bao Mohuan includes with the protein or the lipin union polysaccharide . The tobacco mosaic virus, the flu virus and the bacillus subtilus bacteriophage's electron microscope picture and the structure pattern chart (sees plant virus, is sticking viral branch and bacterium virus). Duplication The viral duplication refers to the viral grain of invasion host cell to the final cell release filial generation poisonous grain of entire process, including the adsorption, enters with peels off the shell, viral early time step and so on gene expression, nucleic acid duplication, later period gene expression, assembly and release. Each step of detail because of virus but different. The adsorption with enters The T4 bacteriophage first by its silk and the backwoods coli surface acceptor union, along with the afterward sheath contraction, the screw shaft which exposes penetrates the bacterium outer wall, stores up the forehead in DNA to inject bacterium in vivo. The animal virus also is first with the cell acceptor union, later perhaps will depend on the cell to swallow the function to enter, after perhaps viral Bao Mo and the cell protoplasmic membrane fusion will cause to enter. The plant virus is directly pours into through the wound invasion or through the medium insect. In the ordinary circumstances, the virus must pass through peels off the shell outside, namely takes off by the protein release nucleic acid, can make the next step of copy. Gene expression Copies the messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) its nucleic acid on genetic information ( mRNA ), then translates the protein again. Generally in the nucleic acid duplication before name early time gene expression, the early protein which produced, some the enzyme which was the nucleic acid duplication needs, some could suppress the nucleic acid and the protein synthesis; Will start the later name later period gene expression in the nucleic acid duplication, will produce the later period protein mainly constitutes the poisonous grain of structure protein. In the early time and the later period protein all includes some to duplicate the regulative function to the virus the protein. Copies Because of viral nucleic acid type but different, altogether has 6 ways: Double strand DNA (dsDNA) viral like SV40, it copies the way and the host cell is same; Contains single chain DNA (ssDNA) the viral like small DNA virus branch, needs again to copy mRNA after the double strand stage; Contains single chain normal chain RNA (ss+RNA) the viral like polio virus, the tobacco mosaic virus and the Q beta bacteriophage, its RNA may directly take the messenger, synthesizes its encoded protein using host's protein synthesis machine; Contains Shan Lianfu chain RNA (ss-RNA) viral like Shui Paoxing the mouth inflammation virus and the flu virus, must first copy the supplementary normal chain to take its mRNA, the ssRNA counter- record virus like chicken lump virus and the leukemia virus, must first pass through the reverse entire to record dsDNA but to contain to the host chromosome in, to expression when again copies mRNA, contains dsRNA to shout the intestines orphaned virus, then copies and in original double strand normal chain same mRNA by the conservative duplication way. In recent years discovered some virus (for example adenovirus and of SV40) the gene is not continual, has the content division of apparent child and, after copies has the film editing process, but connects the content the apparent child, only then has mRNA the function. Most virus' mRNA also must pass through other processings, if ' adds on the hat in 5 the end "" the structure and adds on in 3 ' the end gathers the adenine nucleotide. The viral gene copies needs the enzyme the origin not to be same, like the small DNA virus branch, the breast soak the viral branch to have to rely on DNA RNA gathers the enzyme, all uses the host original enzyme; But shoots the shape virus branch, is sticking the viral branch, vice- sticks the viral branch and shouts the dependence which the intestines orphaned virus branch needs to RNA RNA to gather the enzyme, as well as the counter- record virus branch needs the reverse records the enzyme, all is the viral grain supplies for oneself. Translation The different viral mRNA translation way is different. Generally thought the bacteriophage the translation is are many along counter- sub-, if on Q beta RNA has 3 along counter- sub- (for single peptide chain encoded gene function unit), may independently translate more than 3 kinds of peptides along 1 mRNA. The animal virus's translation is Shan Shunfan, namely copies different mRNA by its gene group, each kind of mRNA translates more than one kind of peptides. The sectionalization section gene group virus like flu virus and shouts the intestines orphaned virus, every 1 section RNA constitutes 1 along counter-, the multi- fissions gene group's plant virus also is so. Polio virus's mRNA first is translated 1 molecular weight is 200,000 great peptides, then passes through the decomposition to become the clothes and the enzyme. Some virus like Phi Chi 174, the Q beta bacteriophage and SV40 and so on, the existence gene overlap phenomenon, namely according to read the code phase to be different but may express one kind of above from the identical nucleotide sequence the protein. This is the virus economically uses its limited genetic information 1 way. Nucleic acid duplication The DNA virus pairs the way according to the classics watson - Krick alkali base to make the DNA copy. The breast soaks viral ring-like DNA to press when "the rolling ring" the pattern makes the copy, needs to have the nucleic acid enzyme and the connection enzyme participation. Viral RNA passes the more than half retention way duplication, namely take viral RNA (vRNA) as a template, simultaneously copies several supplementary chains (RNA), after RNA copies completes and falls off, also copies vRNA again by the similar way which new goods come into the market. Therefore, may find out in the infection cell has the partial double strands structure but also to tow the multi- strip length different single chain "the tail" (synthesizes the supplementary chain)"the duplication intermediate". The viral nucleic acid duplication needs the enzyme the origin to be also various. The SV40DNA synthesis needs the enzyme all comes from the host. Contains RNA the Q beta bacteriophage, the small RNA virus branch and contains ssRNA the plant virus to need RNA to gather the enzyme some Asian base, possibly by viral gene code, but other Asian base comes from the host. The blister measles virus DNA duplication needs enzyme, partially by viral code, if DNA gathers the enzyme and the chest glucoside activating enzyme, possibly also has the nucleotide to return to original state the enzyme. The smallpox class virus's independent ability is strongest, even can make the DNA copy in the anuclear cell, its gene group at least can be 75 breeding eggs white matter code, gathers including DNA the enzyme, the chest glucoside activating enzyme, the desoxyribonuclease and gathers the nucleotide connection enzyme. Assembly and release The viral nucleic acid and the structure protein are separately duplicates, then the attire matches the integrity the viral grain. The simplest assembly way (for example tobacco mosaic virus) is the nucleic acid and the clothes mutually distinguishes, revolves RNA by the clothes shell Asia unit according to the certain way to gather becomes, does not draw support from the enzyme, also does not need the energy regeneration system. Many two viral grains first gather its clothes shell, then loads the nucleic acid again. Has Bao Mo the virus, the shape coring shifts after the cell to has been decorated by the virus the cell or under the protoplasmic membrane, by bud fresh way release virus grain. The T4 bacteriophage then first separately assembles the forehead, the rear part and the tail silk, the final group synthesizes the complete viral grain, the decomposition bacterium releases, some steps need the enzyme the function. In cell level infection type and host response The very early discovery bacteriophage infection has the decomposition and dissolves the source division of. Take the backwoods coli lamda the bacteriophage as the example, the decomposition infection produces the massive filial generations virus grain after the experience above duplication cycle but to decompose the bacterium; When dissolves the source infection, bacteriophage DNA and the conformity to on the backwoods coli DNA specificity position spot, bequeaths the filial generation along with the bacterium fission the bacterium, the bacterium is not decomposed does not produce the filial generation virus grain. The nutritional conditions, the ultraviolet ray or chemistry medicine all can cause the soluble source infection to transform as the decomposition. Animal's DNA viral like SV40, the adenovirus, the blister measles virus was equal to the infection sensitive cell (is called after allowed cell), forms the decomposition infection, but (is called after the infection not greatly sensitive cell does not allow cell), then forms the infection. the infection with dissolves the source infection to be similar, viral DNA or its fragment conformity in the cell chromosome, and bequeaths the filial generation along with the cell division the cell, expresses its part of genes (generally for early gene), but does not produce the filial generation virus grain, the cell did not die, but is transformed is similar to the tumor cell, but infinite hands down from generation to generation. On the other hand, the RNA tumor virus (for example chicken lump virus) must first record its RNA reverse dsDNA and the conformity to the cell chromosome in, can make the copy, therefore this infection way is unique, not only is the infection, also produces the massive viral grain. The host cell has 4 kinds to the viral infection response: Obvious after not response, cell death, cell proliferation death and cell transformation. For example, vice- sticks viral SV5 to produce the massive virus in the cell raise but not to cause the obvious response. When most viral infection sensitive cell, as a result of has suppressed the nucleic acid and the protein synthesis causes the cell death. When smallpox virus infection, first stimulates the cell to split then the death many times, creates the smallpox blister-blight stove. The DNA virus and the RNA tumor virus cause the cell transformation. Some animals virus after the infection host cell, forms in or the cytoplasm has the special staining kfor microscopek characteristic content, is called forgives the body, if in the smallpox virus's cytoplasm forgives the body and the blister measles virus in forgives the body. These forgive the body to have is by is immature or the mature viral grain constitutes, some are the host cell resultants, some are two mixtures. Some insects virus's viral grain of embedding in the protein matrix, forms forgives the body like nuclear type multangular body virus. After the vertebrate cell infection virus's another kind of response produces the interferon. The interferon is one kind of zooblast encoded protein, its gene usually is at does not move the condition, activates to the viral infection or after the double strand RNA induction. The interferon has Guang Pu the anti- viral function, but certainly the direct action to the virus, its function mechanism is through with the cell membrane union, the activation has the anti- viral function 3 kind of enzymes, has blocked the viral mRNA translation. The interferon in prevented the viral proliferation and the disease restore has the certain function, and has the possibility to become one kind of disease-resistant poisonous medicine. In organism level infection type and host response After higher moves, the plant infection virus, may display for the dominance infects and continues to infect, the animal virus also may display for the silent infection. The silent infection not clinical symptom, the dominant infection performance is the clinical disease; In continues in the infection, virus in organism long-standing. The animal virus continues the infection to divide into the ambush to infect, the chronic infection and long distance infects 3 kinds. The ambush infects like the blister measles, usually does not have the symptom also not to look up the virus, but when inside and outside the factor stimulates recurs appears the virus; Chronic infection like , has or does not have the symptom, but may look up the virus; The long distance infection is restricted in the minority virus, if sheep's Maedi - visna (one kind of counter- record virus infection) may look up the virus; The incubation period and the course of an illness very are all long, carries on the nature to arise until died. The higher animal can have the specificity immune response to the viral infection. The immune response divides into the body fluid immunity and the cellular immunity two kinds, the body fluid immunity performance for the immune body which produces by the B cell, including can specially virus's center and the immune body. Center and the immune body infects the leading role again in the prevention. The cellular immunity main performance is distinguishes the viral antigen and has the response T lymphocyte, in elimination virus and in viral infection cell leading role. The vegetable cell to virus common allergic reaction, the cell rapid death, forms , simultaneously the viral duplication also is restricted. Another kind of response is produces one kind to look like the interferon very much the anti- viral factor, can not protect the cell which infects. Sends the lump function Has some virus to be able to induce the benign tumor, like the smallpox virus branch rabbit fibroma virus, the person infectious mollusc virus and the breast soak the viral branch the papilloma virus; Has in addition some can induce the malignant tumor, may divide into the DNA tumor virus and the RNA tumor virus according to its nucleic acid type. The DNA tumor virus soaks the viral material including the breast SV40 and the multi- lumps virus, as well as the adenovirus branch and the blister measles virus branch certain members, may find out the viral nucleic acid or its fragment and the viral encoded protein from the tumor cell, but generally does not have the integrity the viral grain. The RNA tumor virus is the counter- record virus branch, including the chicken and mouse's leukemia and the sarcoma virus, may look up the viral grain from the tumor cell. These two kind of virus can in vitro transformation cell. In the human tumor, had proven the EB virus has the close relation with the lymphoma and the pharyngeal cancer; Recently, recorded the virus from one kind of T cell leukemia Zha Daofan. In addition, II blister measles virus is possible and the cervical cancer cause of disease related, the virus is possible and the liver cancer cause of disease concerns. But, the virus probably is not the only cause of disease, the environment and the heredity factor is possible the synergism. Origin Once had had all sorts of extrapolation regarding virus's origin; One viewpoint thought the virus is possibly similar to the most primitive life; Another kind thought the virus possibly is degenerates from the bacterium comes, as a result of the high development but has gradually lost the independent life ability, for example the parasitic fungus -> -> sets up the gram inferior body -> -> big virus -> small virus by the saprophytic bacteria -> parasitic fungus -> cell in; Also some one kind thought the virus is possibly the host cell product. These extrapolation respectively has the certain basis, at present still did not have the conclusion. Therefore virus's in biological evolution status is undecided. But, how no matter it primitively does origin after, the virus once produces, is same with other living thing, can evolves through the variation and the natural selection . Classification The viral classification naming work presently is responsible by the international viral classification committee, already in 1,971, 1,976, 1,979 and in 1982 has published 4 reports. In 1982 comparatively was complete the material the viral division which but could classify is 7 big groups, hived off was the basis the gene group's nucleic acid type (DNA or RNA), whether there is the type (ds or ss) and wraps the membrane . In 7 big crowds including 59 sections: DsDNA, has the package membrane 4 branches DsDNA, does not have the package of membrane 8 branches, 1 group SsDNA, does not have the package of membrane 3 branches, 1 group DsRNA, has the package membrane 1 branch DsRNA, does not have the package of membrane 1 branch, 4 possibilities branches SsRNA, has the package membrane 8 branches, 1 group SsRNA, does not have the package of membrane 4 branches, 22 groups, 1 possibility group If according to host classification , then is: Bacterium virus 10 branches Fungus virus 3 possibilities branches Plant virus 24 groups, 1 possibility group Non- vertebrate virus 2 branches, 1 group Vertebrate virus 9 branches Does not have the virus which the vertebra, the vertebrate altogether has to have 6 branches, namely the smallpox virus branch virus branch, the small DNA virus branch, throws over the membrane virus branch, the cloth Nepal Asia virus branch and the small RNA virus branch, as well as a possibility branch, namely two sections double strands RNA virus. Does not have the virus which the vertebra, the vertebrate and the plant altogether has to have 2 branches, namely shouts the intestines orphaned virus branch and the ball shape virus branch. The viral classification also is at the initial period stage, later also will be able rapidly to develop and the evolution. At present has all stood to the material more complete animal virus and the bacteriophage for the branch, the grade uses Latin; But plant virus then only sets up the group, the group name uses shrinks the spelling, soon some branch model shrinks on behalf of virus's ordinary name like Tobacco mo-saic virus spells is Tobamo-virus. Under the branch divides the subfamily and is, the subordinate namely for each virus's ordinary name, at present not yet divides the kind. Biological virus's advantage 1st, the bacteriophage may take prevents and controls certain diseases the medicine, for example the burn patient spreads in the trouble place wipes the green thick bacillus bacteriophage diluent 2nd, in the cellular engineering, certain virus may help as the cytomixis melts the medicinal preparation, for example Sendai virus 3rd, in the genetic engineering, the virus may take the goal gene the carrier, causes it to splice in the goal cell chromosome 4th, the virus which increases in the single-minded bacterium culture medium may eliminate mixed 5th, the virus may take the precision guidance medicine the carrier 6th, the virus may take the special effect pesticide The viral vaccine had anti-virus to the humanity has the advantage -- to promote humanity's evolution, humanity's very many genes all is obtains from the virus The virus is one kind of non- cell life shape, it by a nucleic acid long chain and the protein outer covering constitution, the viral own metabolism organization, has not had the enzyme system. Therefore the virus left the host cell, became any vital activity, has not been able the independent self- reproduction chemical substance. Once after enters the host cell, it may use in the cell the matter and the energy as well as the duplication, copies with the translation ability, contains the genetic information according to it nucleic acid to produce with its same new generation of virus. The viral gene is same with other living thing genes, also may occur changes suddenly and reorganizes, therefore also is may evolve. Because of the viral not independent metabolism organization, cannot the independent reproduction, therefore was considered is one kind of incomplete life shape. In recent years had discovered also wants the virus a to be simpler than kind of virus, it is the young RNA member, does not have the protein outer covering, but it may create the disease on the animal body. These incomplete life shape existence showed lifeless with has between the life not the insurmountable gap. Computer virus The computer virus is not the familiar biological virus which we said, the computer virus is a procedure, a section may carry out the code. But, the computer virus is same on the lifelike virus, has the unique duplication ability. The syngenesis virus same computer virus may very quickly spread, moreover frequently with difficulty eradicates. They can attach oneself in each kind of type document. When the document is duplicated or transmits from a user to another user, they accompany the document together to spread come. Besides the duplication ability, the computer virus also has other some and the biological virus same common characteristic: Can transmit by the viral infection procedure the viral carrier, is similar to the infectious disease. When you saw the viral carrier as if merely displays when the writing and the image, they also have possibly destroyed the document, have formatted again your hard disk, deleted the actuation or has created other each kind of type disaster. If the virus certainly does not parasite to alone the procedure which infects, it also can through occupy the storage space to bring the trouble to you, and reduces your computer complete performance. Is similar with the biological virus in the dissemination is "the computer virus" the name origin. Computer virus's definition May produce the computer virus from the different angle the definition. One kind of definition is: Through the floppy disk, the magnetic tape and the network and so on take the medium dissemination proliferation, can "the infection" other procedures procedures. Another kind is: Can realize own duplication also has the ambush with the aid of the certain carrier existence, the infection and the destructive procedure. Also some definitions are: One kind of artificial manufacture procedure, it through different way ambush or parasitism in memory media (for example floppy disk, memory) or in procedure. When some kind of condition or conditions are ripe, it can from live the duplication and the dissemination, causes the computer the resources to receive different procedure destruction and so on. These views borrowed the biology virus's concept in some kind of significance, the computer virus syngenesis virus similarity have acted can invade the computer system and the network, the harm normal work "the pathogen". It can carry on each kind of destruction to the computer system, simultaneously can the oneself duplication, have the infection. Therefore, the computer virus is can through some way ambush in the computer storage medium (or procedure) in, when achieved when some kind of condition namely having which activates to the computer resources is carried on the destructive effect group of procedures or the instruction set. Is all computer virus is different which with the biological virus all is artificial makes, after sometimes once proliferates continually editor also to be unable to control. It already was not a simple pure computer academic question, but was a serious social question, specially in computer network today, a computer virus manifests suddenly the harm which created possibly a plague also to have to be fiercer than. Several years ago, majority virus mainly through floppy disk dissemination, but, Internet has introduced the new viral transmission mechanism. Serves as along with the present email one kind of communication facility, the virus on compared to formerly any time all must expand quickly. The computer virus is the artificial product, therefore its production and the development are controls with difficulty, issues the statistical data according to the American country computer security association, had surpasses 10,,000 kind of virus to identify, moreover each month all is producing 200 kind of new virus. Edition entry Opening classification: Microorganism , computer , biology , RNA Reference: 1.F. J. Fenner, D. O. White, Medical Virology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York/London, 1976. 2.S. E. Luria, et al. General Virology. 3rd ed. JohnWiley & Sons, New York, 1978. 3. ? Fr=idnw 4. ? Si=1 5. Contributor: Superloveo , the class put on the bee , the middle of the month sentiment silkworm , finalmin , center the branch labor , zlalalal , zhanghe0228 , liufang3721 , the fish wild goose flower month , daqinmeng , robin1123 , zxf76543 , Zhou Tongpan , 412.056029 million , the Yuwen light , ufo2005065 , any false , kukubody , the fact fact fact city , Li Chenglong , the bamboo grove passes the cool breeze , is pecking B the wooden W bird , wangpijie , the ice arrogant This entry is mentioned in the below entry: Stochastic viral , the biology , Virus.Win32.AutoRun.f , Worm.Zush , card Buskie unifies the spatial security , mid- and small-scale enterprise card Buskie the space security , the Asian virus , on January 21 , W32.Beagle.AX @mm , Trojan.PSW.Win32.OnlineGames.yqh , Trojan.Win32.VB.c , Worm.Win32.Agent.o , Email-Worm.Win32.Warezov.ds , the panda burns incense , the cell wall , the browser , , the biology , the information security , the creation discusses , robs the number wooden horse , the whale , the urine road infection , the Alaska sled dog , the AIDS , Microsoft , the electronic government affairs system , the corpse virus , the economical poison , are especially more >> "Virus" in Chinese-English dictionary explanation (origin: Hundred dictionaries ): 1.a virus About this entry commentary (altogether 55) : Examination more commentaries >> .. Too were many fiercely admires wodemimi6240 01-01 09:33 Too were many! ! X19940724 12-28 19:24 Is fierce not does not admire... yushihong669 12-25 08:09 Makes the commentary to this entry: Returns to the page head ©2,008 Baidu Hundred branches tadpoles group

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Japan will ride the bicycle after the vehicle shed to forbid the use handset or wears the type earp

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